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Old Nicka was a spirit that came to strangle people who fell into the water. Bo was a fierce Gothic captain, son of Odin, whose name was used by his soldiers when they would fight or surprise their enemies. The expression, therefore, may be considered as blaming, finding fault with, the day on which the event mentioned happened. This town is generally called Se'noaks in Kent; and the further contraction, coupled with the phonetic spelling of former days, easily passed into S'nooks.
This is no imaginary conclusion, for Messrs. Sharp and Harrison, solicitors, Southampton, have recently had in their possession a series of deeds, in which all the modes of spelling occur from Sevenokes down to S'nokes, in connection with a family now known as Snooks. This distich is said to have been inscribed on the violin of Palestrina, the' Musicme Princeps " of the sixteenth century:Viva fui in sylvis; sum dura occisa securi; Dum vixi tacui; mortua dulce sona.
Thus translated into French: La hache m'arracha mourant du fond des bois; Vivant, j'etais muet; mort, on vante ma voix. The following curious story is in a rare little Portuguese book. It was written by Father Francisco da Fonseca, a Jesuit priest, who accompanied the ambassador in quality of almoner and confessor, and is full of amusing matter, particularly in reference to the strange opinions concerning our laws, government, and religion, which the worthy padre appears to have picked up during his short stay in England.
The original of the annexed translation is to be found at pp. As we are now upon the subject of miracles wrought by Relics in Vienna, I shall proceed to relate another prodigy which happened in the said city, and which will greatly serve to confirm in us those feelings of piety with which we. The Count Harrach, who was greatly favored by the Duke of Saxony, begged of him, as a present, a few of the many relics which the duke preserved in his treasury, assuredly less out of devotion than for the sake of their rarity and value.
The duke, with his usual benignity, acceded to this request, and gave orders that sundry vials should be dispatched to the count, filled with most indubitable relics of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, of the Apostles, of the Innocents, and of other holy persons. He directed two Lutheran ministers to pack these vials securely in a precious casket, which the duke himself sealed up with his own signet, and set off to Vienna. On its arrival there, it was deposited in the chapel of the count, which is situated in the street called Preiner.
The count immediately informed the bishop of the arrival of this treasure, and invited him to witness the opening of the casket, and to attend for the purpose of verifying its contents. Accordingly the bishop came, and on opening the casket, there proceeded from it such an abominable stench that no man could endure it, infecting, as it did, the whole of the chapel.
The bishop thereupon ordered all the vials to be taken out, and carefully examined one by one, hoping to ascertain the cause of this strange incident, which did not long remain a mystery, for they soon found the very vial from which this pestilent odor was issuing. It contained a small fragment of cloth, which was thus labelled: " Ex caligis Diri Macrtini Lutheri," that is to say, "A bit of the breecfhes of Saint cfartin Luthzer," which the aforesaid two Lutheran ministers, by way of mockery of our piety, had slily packed up with the holy relics in the casket.
The bishop instantly gave orders to burn this abominable rag of the great heresiareh, and forthwith not only the stench ceased, but there proceeded from the true relics such a delicious and heavenly odor as perfumed the entire building. The word Yankee is believed to have been derived from the manner in which the Indians endeavored to pronounce the word English, which they rendered Yenghees, whence the word Yabnkee. The word Yankee undoubtedly had the Yenghees origin referred to above, but it does not seem to have been very common until the time of the Revolutionary war.
I have not met with it in any. Noah Webster, in his Dictionary, gives the Yenghees origin of the word, upon the authority of Heekewelder; and that fact may account for its being looked upon in New England as something novel. Heckewelder is excellent authority upon Indian subjects; but he spent his time principally among the Delawares and the Six Nations, and was not likely to be well acquainted with the Massaclhusetts Indians, who spoke a different dialect.
Several of the regiments of British regulars who were transferred to Boston after the beginning of the troubles, had been stationed in the middle colonies, and had considerable expe, rience in Indian warfare, and may have thus acquired a knowledge of the word. The 18th, or Royal Irish, for instance, had been engaged in nearly all the battles which had taken place in the colonies during two French wars, and they had acquired much familiarity with American affairs.
That the word was rather uncommon in New England, is shown by various letters written from thence. One from the Rev. Gordon, published in the Penna Gazette, May 10, , giving an account of the skirmishes at Concord and Lexington, says, " They the British troops were roughly handled by the Yankees, a term of reproach for the New Englanders, when applied by the regulars. It was soon adopted, however. In a few months thereafter the citi. At this day it is only applied in the United States to the inhabitants of New England, but foreigners use it to denote all the Americans.
The Indians, in attempting to utter the word Enqlish, with their broad guttural accent, gave it a sound which would be nearly represented in this way, Yczutyhees; the letter g being pronounced hard, and approaching to the sound of k joined with a strong aspirate, like the Hebrew cheth, or the Greek clii, and the I suppressed, as almost impossible to be distinctly heard in that combination. The Dutch settlers on the river I-Iudson and the adjacent country, during their long contest concerning the right of territory, adopted the name, and applied it in contempt to the inhabitants of New England.
The British of the lower class have since extended it to all the people of the United States. This seems the most probable origin of the term. The pretended Indian tribe of Yankoos does not appear to have ever had an existence; as little can we believe in an etymological derivation of tile word from ancient Scythia or Siberia, or that it was ever the name of a horde of savages in any part of the world. In a curious book on the Round Towers of Ireland, the origin of the term Yankee-doodle was traced to the Persian phrase, "Yanki cldoonih,' or "Inhabitants of the New World.
Most persons have heard of the story of an Italian painter who embodied the idea of IDeath on the canvas so truthfully that the. I always thought it was fabulous till I met with it in the translation of Vasari's Lives of the Painters, vol. The name of Fivizzano is there given to the painter, and the following epigram is said to have been inscribed beneath the picture: Me veram pictor divinus mente recepit.
Admota est operi deinde perita manus. Dumque opere in facto defigit lumina pictor, Intentus nimium, palluit et moritur. Viva igitur sum mors, non mortua mortis imago Si fungor, quo mors fungitur officio. Which may be thus translated: Me with such truth the painter's mind discerned, While with such skilful hand the work he plied, That when to view his finished work he turned, With horror stricken, he grew pale, and died. Hulls, Jonathan. A Description and Draught of a new-invented Machine for carrying vessels or ships out of, or into any harbour, port, or river, against wind and tide, or in a calm.
For which his Majesty has granted letters patent, for the sole benefit of the Author, for the space of Fourteen years. London, It entirely puts an end to the claims of America to the invention of steam navigation, and establishes for this country the honor of that important discovery. The practice of ". The custom is confined to servants and mechanics in towns; but in the country, farmers of the humbler sort make biddings. Of late years tea parties have in Carmarthen been substituted for the bidding; but persons attending pay for what they get, and so incur no obligation; but givers at a bidding are expected and generally do return " all gifts of the above nature whenever called for on a similar occasion.
Accompanying is considered an addition to the obligation conferred by the gift. I have seen, I dare say, six hundred persons in a wedding procession, and have been in one or two myself when a child. The men walk together and the women together to church; but in returning they walk in pairs, or often in trios, one man between two women.
The last time I was at such a wedding I had three strapping wenches attached to my person. In the country they ride, and generally there is a desperate race home to the bidding, where you would be surprised to see a comely lass, with Welsh. The Young Woman, her Father and Mother Evan Davies, Pig-drover, and Margaret, his wife , and her Brother and Sisters John, Hannah, Jane, and Anne Davies , desire that all gifts of the above nature due to them be returned to the Young Woman on the above day, and will be thankful for all additional favours conferred.
On the fly-leaf -of an old music-book is the following little poem. I do not remember to have seen it in print. Dazel'd thus with height of place, Whilst our hopes our wits beguile; No man marks the narrow space'Twixt a prison and a smile. But if greatness be so blind, As to burst in towers of air; Let it be with goodness lin'd, That at least the fall be'fair. Then, though dark'ned you shall say, When friends fail and princes frown; Virtue is the roughest way, But proves at night a bed of down. It is in the handwriting of " Johs. Rasbrick vie. Spenser gives us a hint of the annoyances to which Shakspeare and Burbage may have been subject: All suddenly they heard a troublous noise, That seemed some perilous tumult to design, Confused with women's cries and shouts of boys, Such as the troubled theatres oft-times annoys.
Spenser's solitary pun occurs in book iv. Cleanliness does not appear to have been a virtue much in vogue in the "'glorious days of good Queen Bess. An instance of the compound epithets, so much used by Chap. In the Mluscsum Tracdescantianzum, or a Collection of Rarities preserved at South Lambeth, near London, by John Tradescant, , is, amongst " other variety of rarities," " the pliable Mazer wood, which, being warmed in water, will work to any form;" and a little farther on, in the list of " utensils and household stuffe," is "M lazer dishes. The Doctor says, "it could be moulded into any form by merely dipping it into boiling water.
The answer is easy. In another part of the Hituseun Tradescantianurn may be found a list of the "' benefactors " to the collection; and amongst their names occurs that of William Curteen, Esq. Now this William Curteen and his father Sir William, of Flemish descent, were the most extensive British merchants of the time, and had not only ships trading to, but also possessed forts and factories on, some of the islands of.
Curteen was a collector of curiosities himself, and no doubt his captains and agents were instructed to procure such: in short, a specimen of gutta percha was just as likely to attract the attention of an intelligent Englishman at Amboyna in the fifteenth century, as it did at Singapore in the nineteenth. If there are still any remains of Tradescant's collection in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, the question, whether the Mazer wood was gutta percha or not, might be soon set at rest; but it is highly probable that the men who ordered the relics of the Dodo to be thrown out, showed but little ceremony to the Mazer wood or dishes.
The following lines are said to be the impromptu production of some passer-by, struck with the Horse and Lamb over the Temple gates. They are printed probably for the first time in the sixth number of The Foundling Hlospital for Wit, 8vo. Webb, near St. Paul's, p. The learned author of Heraldic Anomalies 2d edit. William Dunkin, D. That travellers may infer from hence How just is their profession; The lamb sets forth their innocence, The horse their expedition. Deluded men, these holds foregco Nor trust such cunning elves; These artful emblems tend to show Their clients, not themselves.
Nor let the thought of no " delay," To these their courts misguide you; You are the showy IIoRsE, and they Are jockeys that will ride you.
The great affront of giving the lie arose from the phrase "Thou liest," in the oath taken by the defendant in judicial combats before engaging, when charged with any crime by the plaintiff; and Francis I. John Stowe the chronicler in his old age was reduced to poverty, or rather to actual beggary. Shortly before his death, when fourscore years old, he was permitted, by royal letters patent, to become a mendicant.
This curious document is printed in Mr. He says they frequently married domestics and retainers of great houses-a statement which has grievously excited the wrath of Mr. Babington and other champions. In a little book, once very popular, first published in , with the title, Microcosmographie, or a Piece of the World discovered, and which is known to have been written by John Earle, after the Restoration Bishop of Worcester and then of Salisbury, is the following passage.
It occurs in what the author calls a character of " a young raw preacher. His friends, and much painefulnesse, may preferre him to thirtie pounds a yeere, and this meanes, to a chamber-maide: with whom we leave him now in the bonds of wedlocke. Next Sunday you shall have him againe. First, that he lie upon the truckle-bed, While his young maister lieth o'er his head; Second, that he do, upon no default, Never to sit above the salt; Third, that he never change his trencher twise; Fourth, that he use all common courtesies, Sit bare at meales, and one half rise and wait; Last, that he never his yong maister beat, But he must aske his mother to define How manie jerks she would his breech should line; All these observ'd, he could contented be, To give five markes, and winter liverie.
In a satire addressed to a friend about to leave the University, by Oldham, the condition of a chaplain in the times of Charles II. Little the unexperienc'd Wretch does know, What slavery he oft must undergo: Who, though in Silken Scarf and Cassock drest, Wears but a gayer Livery at best: When Dinner calls, the Implement must wait With holy words to consecrate the Meat: But hold it for a Favour seldom known, If he be deign'd the Honour to sit down.
Soon as the Tarts appear, Sir Crape, withdraw! Those Dainties are not for a spiritual Maw:. And where's the mighty Prospect after all, A Chaplainship serv'd up, and seven years' Thrall? The following are additional evidences of the truth of Macaulay's picture. The first describes the life at Wrest in Bedfordshire, where Carew wrote, the seat of Selden's Countess of Kent: The Lord and Lady of this place delight Rather to be in act than seem in sight; Instead of statues to adorn their wall, They throng with living men their merry hall, Where at large tables filled with wholesome meats, The servant tenant and kind neighbor eats.
Some of that rank, spun of a finer thread, Are with the women, steward and chaplain fed With daintier cates; others of better note, Whom wealth, parts, office, or the herald's coat, Have severed from the common, freely sit At the Lord's table. To my friend G. The instances from Gay and Pope, or rather Swift, need no comment Cheese that the table's closing rites denies, And bids me with th' unwilling chaplain rise.
Gay, Trivia, No sooner said, but from the hall Rush chaplain, butler, dogs and all, "A rat, a rat, clap to the door. Many have letter-changes, most of which imitate the pronunciation of infants. L is lisped for r. A central consonant is doubled. An infant forms p with its lips sooner than mn: papa before mamma. To pursue the subject: reduplication is used; as in Nannie, Nell, Dandie; and by substitution in Bob. Ded would be of ill omen: therefore we have, for Edward, Ned or Ted, n and t being coheir to d; for Rick, Dick, perhaps on account of the final d in Richard.
Argidius becomes Giles, our nursery friend Gill, who accompanied Jack in his disastrous expedition "' up the hill. What are we to say of Jack for John? It seems to be from. How came the confusion? I do not remember to have met with the name James in early English history, and it seems to have reached us from Scotland. Perhaps, as Jean and Jaques were among the commonest French names, John came into use as a baptismal name, and Jaques or Jack entered by its side as a familiar term.
It is observable that of these, James and Giacomo alone have the m. Most of our softened words are due to the smooth-tongued Normans. The harsh Saxon Schrobbesbyrigschire, or Shropshire, was by them softened into le Cort6e de Salop, and both names are still used. I one day was looking over the different monuments in Cranbrook Church in Kent, when in the chancel my attention was arrested by one erected to the memory of Sir Richard Baker.
The gauntlet, gloves, helmet, and spurs were as is often the case in monumental erections of Elizabethan date suspended over the tomb. What chiefly attracted my attention was the color of the gloves, which was red. The old woman who acted as my cicerone, seeing me look at them, said, "Aye, miss, those are Bloody Baker's gloves; their red color comes from the blood he shed.
The sole representative of the family remaining at the accession of Queen Mary was Sir Richard Baker. IHe had spent some years abroad in consequence of a duel; but when, said my informant, Bloody Queen Mary reigned, he thought he might safely return, as he was a Papist.
When he came to Cranbrook he took up his abode in his old house. He only brought one foreign servant with him, and these two lived alone. Very soon strange stories began to be whispered respecting unearthly shrieks having been heard frequently to issue at nightfall from his house. Many people of importance were stopped and robbed in the Glastonbury woods, and many unfortunate travellers were missed and never heard of more. Richard Baker still continued to live in seclusion, but he gradually repurchased his alienated property, although he was known to have spent all he possessed before he left England.
But wickedness was not always to prosper. He formed an apparent attachment to a young lady in the neighborhood, remarkable for always wearing a great many jewels. He often pressed her to come and see his old house, telling her he had many curious things he wished to show her. She had always resisted fixing a day for her visit, but happening to walk within a short distance of his house, she determined to surprise him with a visit; her companion, a -lady older than herself, endeavored to dissuade her from doing so, but she would not be turned from her purpose.
They knocked at the door, but no one answered them; they, however, discovered it was not locked, and determined to enter. At the head of the stairs hung a parrot, which, on their passing, cried out,"Peepoh, pretty lady, be not too bold, Or your red blood will soon run cold. Just then they heard a noise, and on looking out of the window saw Bloody Baker and his servant bringing in the murdered body of a lady.
Nearly dead with fear, they concealed themselves in a recess under the staircase. As the murderers with their dead burden passed by them, the hand of the unfortunate murdered lady hung in the baluster of the stairs; with an oath Bloody Baker chopped it off, and it fell into the lap of one of the concealed ladies. As soon as the murderers had passed by, the ladies ran away, having the presence of mind to carry with them the dead hand, on one of the fingers of which was a ring.
On reaching home they told their story, and in confirmation of it displayed the ring. All the families who had lost relatives mysteriously were then told of what had been found out, and they determined to ask Baker to a large party, apparently in a friendly manner, but to have constables concealed ready to take him into custody.
He came, suspecting nothing, and then the lady told him all she had seen, pretending it was a dream. Upon this the constables rushed in and took him; and the tradition further says, he was burnt, notwithstanding Queen Mary tried to save him, on account of the religion he professed. Coleridge, in his Biograiphia Literaria, 1st edit. Your poem must eternal be, Dear sir! This was, however, only a Gadshill robbery,-stealing stolen goods. The following epigram is said to be by Mr.
Hole, in a MS. Salter copied it in his Confusion worse Confounded, p. For he who reads them, reads them to no end. In The Crypt, a periodical published by the late Rev. Hall, vol. Sly Beelzebub took all occasions To try Job's constancy and patience; He took his honors, took his health, He took his children, took his wealth, His camels, horses, asses, cows,Still the sly devil did not take his spouse.
But Heav'n, that brings out good from evil, And likes to disappoint the devil, Had predetermined to restore Two-fold of all Job had before, His children, camels, asses, cows,Short-sighted devil, not to take his spouse. This is merely an amplified version of the th epigram of the 3d Book of Owen. Divitias Jobo, sobolemque, ipsamque salutem Abstulit hoc Domino non prohibens Satan. Omnibus ablatis, miserb, tamen una superstes, Qum magis afflictum redderet, uxor erat.
There is also another version of Job's luck:The devil engaged with Job's patience to battle, Tooth and nail strove to worry him out of his life; He robb'd him of children, slaves, houses, and cattle, But, mark me, he ne'er thought of taking his wife. But heaven at lengthi Job's forbearance rewards, At length double wealth, double honor arrives, He doubles his children, slaves, houses, and herds, But we don't hear a word of a couple of wives.
Knight, in a note on As You L ike It, gives us the description of a dial presented to him by a friend who had picked it " out of a deal of old iron," and which he supposes to be such a one as the " fool i' the forest" drew from his poke, and looked on with lack-lustre eye. It is very probable that this species of chronometer is still in common use in the sister kingdom.
Carleton, in his amusing Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry, thus describes them:The ring-dial was the hedge-schoolmaster's next best substitute for a watch. As it is possible that a great number of our readers may never have heard of, much less seen one, we shall in a word or two describe it-nothing, indeed, could be more simple. It was a bright brass ring, about three quarters of an inch broad, and two inches and a half in diameter.
There was a small hole in it, which, when held opposite the sun, admitted the light against the inside of the ring behind. On this were marked the hours and the quarters, and the time was known by observing the hour or the quarter on which the slender ray, that came in from the hole in front, fell. Marmoreo Licinus tumulo jacet, at Cato nullo, Pompeius parvo. Quis putet, esse Deos? Credimus esse Deos? O'er base Licinus costliest marbles rise; Unburied Cato, meanly Pompey, lies.
Is there a God? His tomb Licinus damns to endless fame, Cato's and Pompey's monument their name. There is a God. In order that all good little boys may know how much more lucky it is for them to be little boys now, than it was in the ancient times, be informed of the cruel manner in which even good little boys were liable to be treated by the law of the Ripuarians.
When a sale of land took place, it was required that there should be twelve witnesses, and with these as many boys, in whose presence the price of the land should be paid, and its formal surrender take place; and then the boys were beaten, and their ears pulled, so that the pain thus inflicted upon them should make an impression upon their memory, and that they might, if necessary, be afterwards witnesses as to the sale and delivery of the land. Lex RBipuariumr LX. In a note of Balucius upon this passage, he states:A practice somewhat similar to this prevails in our own times, for in some of the provinces, whenever a notorious criminal is condemned to death, parents bring their sons with them to the place of execution, and, at the moment that he is put to death, they whip their children with rods, so that being thus excited by their own sufferings, and by seeing the punishment inflicted on another for his Sins, they may ever bear in mind how necessary it is for them, in their progress through life, to be prudent and virtuous.
The "original Mrs. Partington " was a respectable old lady, living at Sidmouth, in Devonshire. Her cottage was on the beach, and during an awful storm that, I think, of November, , when some fifty or sixty ships were wrecked at Plymouth the sea rose to such a height as every now and then to invade the old lady's place of domicile; in fact, almost every wave dashed in at the door. Partington, with such help as she could command, with mops and brooms, as fast as the water entered the house, mopped it out again; until at length the waves had the mastery, and the dame was compelled to retire to an upper story of the house.
The first allusion to the circumstance was made by Sidney Smith, in a speech on the Reform Bill, in which he compared the Conservative opposition to the bill to be like the opposition of " Dame Partington and her mop, who endeavored to mop out the waves of the Atlantic.
Burke, in his Anecdotes of the Aristocracy, furnishes the following specimen of an advertisement of Sir John Dinely for a partner:To the angelic fair of true English breed,-Sir John Dinely, of Windsor Castle, recommends himself and his ample fortune to any angelic beauty of good breed, fit to become and willing to be a mother of a noble heir, and keep up the name of an ancient family, ennobled by deeds of arms and ancestral renown.
Ladies at a certain period of life need not apply, as heirship is the object of the ladies' sincere admirer, Sir John Dinely. Fortune favors the bold. Such ladies as this advertisement may induce to apply or send their agents but not servants or matrons , may direct to me at the Castle, Windsor. Happiness and pleasure are agreeable objects, and should be regarded as well as honor. The lady who thus becomes my wife will be a baronetess, and rank accordingly as Lady Dinely of Windsor.
Good and favor to all ladies of Great Britain. Pull no caps on his accoutt, but favor him. The changes that have taken place in family names during the short period that has elapsed since the settlement of America by Europeans, lead us to believe in the greater changes that are reported to have occurred in surnames in the Old World.
Whenever William Penn could translate a German name into a corresponding English one, he did so, in issuing patents for land in Pennsylvania: thus, the respectable Carpenter family in Lancaster are the descendants of a Zimmerman. The district of Southwark, in this county, covers ground once owned by a Swede named Swen.
His son was called Swen's son, from whom the Swanson family derived their name. The Vastine family came from a Van de Vorstein. A person whose family name was Sturdevant, Englished it into Treadaway a few years ago; and a family which during the Revolution spelt their name Boehm have since softened it into Bumm. Occasionally a French name is translated. One of two brothers living near Philadelphia, is known as Mr. La Rue, his brother as Mr. A large family in Virginia and other southern States spell their name Taliaferro, and pronounce it Toliver.
Have they any connection with the Norman Taillefer? This is the same wine which is now named sherry. Falstaff calls it sherris sack, and also sherris only, using in fact both names indiscriminately 2 Henry IV. For various commentaries regarding it, see Blount's Glossographia; Dr. Cotgrave, in his Dictionary, makes sack to be derived from vin sec, French. In a MS. Percy found the ancient mode of spelling to be seek, and thence concluded that sack is a corruption of sec, signifying a dry wine.
Moreover, in the French version of a proclamation for regulating the prices of wines, issued by the Privy Council in , the expression vins sees corresponds with the word sacks in the original. The term sec is still used as a substantive by the French to denote a Spanish wine; and the dry wine of Xeres is known at the place of its growth by the name of vino seco. Henderson, Lond. It is under the head of "Nicols' Voyage. The island of Teneriffe produces three sorts of wine, Canary, Malvasia, and rerdona, " which may all go under the denomination of sack.
In AngloSpanish dictionaries of a century and a quarter old, sack is given as Vino de Canarias. Hence it was Canary sack, Xeres sack, or Malaga sack. It may not be amiss here to quote the praises of sack as sounded by Falstaff 2 Henry IV. Act IV. None of the biographers of Thomson seem to have fallen in with a copy of the catalogue of his effects, disposed of by auction after his death in Thomson's residence for several years preceding his death was a snug cottage in Kewfoot Lane, near Richmond.
The situation is one of the finest in that fine district. The cottage was embowered in trees and shrubbery, and behind it was a garden, in which the lazy good-humored poet took his ease of an afternoon, and muttered his verses throughout the moonlight nights. His garden-seat and writing-table are still preserved; but the cottage has been enlarged into a handsome villa, and the garden has been extended and improved so as to become one of the most exquisite and richly ornamented in that patrician neighborhood.
Yet even in Thomson's time the cottage at Kewfoot Lane was a desirable residence; and the poet, after weathering many difficulties, had succeeded in gathering around him at least a moderate share of the comforts and elegancies of life. If his little Castle of Indolence could not boast its costly tapestry, huge covered tables and couches, " the pride of Turkey and of Persia land," there was no lack of respectable bachelor accommodation, with an assortment of valuable prints and books, and a cellar that could have supplied a dozen of jovial banquets to Quin, Armstrong, Lyttelton, Mitchell, and those other select friends whom he delighted to entertain, and by whom he was so tenderly beloved.
But let us look at the differ. The first division, marked a' No. It had a bed with moreen furniture and other accessories, valued at No 5, one pair of stairs, had a Turkey carpet valued at It was decorated with a Scotch carpet, 10s. Besides cups, saucers, plates, and mugs, there are " Shagreen case, with twelve silver-handled knives and forks; a silver watch with a cornelian seal, b. The contents of the cellar, to which no prices are affixed, are set down as follows: 30 bottles of Burgundy, 30 bottles of red port, 4 bottles of old hock, 7 bottles of mountain and Madeira, 10 bottles of Rhenish, 66 bottles of Edinburgh ale, 90 bottles of Dunbar ale.
There is no mention of ardent spirits. The library consisted of lots, the greater part of the books foreign and classical. Editions of Dante, Tasso, and Ariosto are among the number. The library cannot be considered valuable, but it was fully equal to that of Johnson or Goldsmith. Authors resident in London, with public libraries at command, have little inducement to accumulate books at home, even if their worldly circumstances were such as to permit of the expensive luxury.
Thomson, it is well known, had a taste for the fine arts, and during his tour in Italy with Mr. Talbot, collected some drawings and prints from the old masters. He seems to have had no less than eighty-three pictures hung up in his different rooms, and "a large portfolio with maps, prints, and drawings, to be sold together or separate. They consist of the Venus. It is indicative of Thomson's taste that none of the engravings are from pictures of the Dutch school, but from those of Raphael, Guido, Correggio, Carlo Maratti, Poussin, Julio Romano, and other masters of the poetical and romantic.
It appears, then, that the furniture of Thomson was valued at The sale is stated to be " by order of the executrix," his sister, Mrs. Craig of Edinburgh, and it was to take place on Monday, May 15, , and two following days. The poet's friends, who had been so sincere and so active in their sympathy on the occasion of his death, would no doubt come forward at the sale to promote its success, and to possess themselves of some relic of their departed associate. John Forbes of Culloden, the "joyous youth " of the Castle of Indolence canto i.
The accompanying specimens of foreign English are perhaps worth a corner among the minor curiosities of literature Bains ordinaires et artificiels, tenu par B. Siegmund, Dr. In this new erected establishment, which the Owner recommends best to all foreigners are to have,-Ordinary and artful baths, russia and sulphury bagnios, pumpings, artiful mineral waters, gauze lemonads, fournished apartmerts for patients. Title-page in lithograph. Remembrance on the Cathedral of Cologne.
Augsbura, Drei Mohren Hotel. Entry in travellers' book. January 28, Great honour arrived at the beginning of this year to the three Moors: this illustrious warrior, whose glorious atchievements, which, cradled in Asia, have filled Europe with his renown, descended in it. Alount Sinai. On the fly-leaf of the travellers' book. Here in too were inscribed as in one legend, all whose in the rule of the year come from different parts, different cities and countries, pilgrims and travellers of any different rank and religion or profession, for advise and notice thereof to their posterity, and even also in owr own of memory acknowledging.
That hotel open since a very few days, is renowned for the cleanness of the apartments and linen; for the exactness of the service, and for the eccelence of the true french cookery. Being situated at proximity of that regeneration, it will be propitius to receive families, whatever, which will desire to reside alternatively into that town, to visit the monuments new found, and to breathe thither the salubrity of the air. That establishment will avoid to all the travellers, visitors, of that sepult city, and to the artists, willing draw the antiquities a great disorder, occasioned by the tardy and expensive contour of the iron-whay.
People will find equally thither, a complete sortmient of stranger wines, and of the kingdom, hot and cold baths, stables and coach houses, the whole with very moderated prices. Now, all the applications, and endeavours of the hoste, will tend always to correspond to the tastes and desires,'of their customers, which will acquire without doubt, to him, in to that town, the reputation whome, he is ambitious.
The above is a literal copy of a card. He sells cooked clays, old marble stones, with basso-relievos, with stewing-pots, brass sacrificing pots, and antik lamps. Here is a stocking of calves heads and feets for single ladies and amateurs travelling.. Also old coppers and candlesticks; with Nola jugs, Etruscan saucers, and much more intellectual minds articles; all entitling him to learned man's inspection to examine him, and supply it with illustrious protection, of which he hope full and valorous satisfaction.
He have also one manner quite original for make join two sides of different monies; producing one medallion, all indeed unique, and advantage him to sell by exportation for strange cabinets and museums of the exterior potentates. Southey says Ornniana, vol. Corps is sometimes used for the living body The inscription placed by M. Girardin to the memory of Shenstone, at Ermenonville, is a rich specimen of French-English verse. But the choicest philological curiosity in this way that I have met with, is the circular of an Italian hotel-keeper. This unique.
The old Inn of London's Tower, placed among the more agreeable situation of Verona's course del corso di Verona , belonging at Sir Theodosius Zignoni, restor'd by the decorum most indulgent to good things, of life's eases; del Sig. Teodosio Zignoni restaurato con la decenza la piu compatibile al buon, gusto, delli agi delia vita which are favoured from every arts liable at Inn same che vengono favoriti da tutte le arti sotto2porste all' alberyo stesso , with all object that is concerned conveniency of stage coaches unitanmente a cii che interesse ii comodo delle vetture proper horses, but good forages, and coach-house; Do offers at Innkeeper the constant hope, to be honoured from a great concourse, where politeness, good genius of meats il buon gusto di cucina , to delight of nations a genio delle Nazioni , round table, Coffee-house, hackney-coach, menservant of place servi di piazza , swiftness of service, and moderation of prices, shall arrive to accomplish in Him all satisfaction, and at Sirs, who will do the favour honouring him a very assur'd kindness.
Surely than this, the force of foreign-English can no farther go the German and the French are equally rich. The following is from a MS. Sir Christopher Hales being jilted by a lady who promised him marriage, and put him off on the day set for their marriage, gave her a good whipping at parting.
Remember the story. I am not aware that the fact of Cranmer's holding his right hand in the flames till it was consumed has been questioned. Fox says:He stretched forth his right hand into the flames, and there held it so stedfast that all the people might see it burnt to a coal before his body was touched. Milner, London, , 8vo. Or, as the passage is given in the last edition,And when the wood was kindled, and the fire began to burn near him, he put his right hand into the flame, which he held so stedfast and immovable saving that once with the same hand he wiped his face , that all men might see his hand burned before his body was touched.
Burnet is more circumstantial. When he came to the stake he prayed, and then undressed himself: and being tied to itf, as the fire was kindling, he stretched forth his right hand towards the flame, never moving it, save that once he wiped his face with it, till it was burnt away, which was consumed before the fire reached his body. He expressed no disorder from the pain he was in; sometimes saying, " That unworthy hand;" and oft crying out, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.
Hume says:He stretched out his hand, and without betraying, either by his countenance or motions, the least sign of weakness, or even feeling, he held it in the flames till it was entirely consumed. I am not about to discuss the character of Cranmer: a timid man might have been roused under such circumstances into at. The laws of physiology and combustion show that he could not have gone beyond the attempt.
If a furnace were so constructedl, that a man might hold his hand in the flame without burning his body, the shock to the nervous system would deprive him of all command over muscular action before the skin could be " entirely consumed. In this case the fire was unconfined.
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Whoever has seen the effect of flame in the open air, must know that the vast quantity sufficient entirely to consume a human hand, must have destroyed the life of its owner; though, from a peculiar disposition of the wood, the vital parts might have been protected. The entire story is utterly impossible. May we, guided by the words "as the fire was kindling," believe that he then thrust his right hand into the flame-a practice, I believe, not unusual with our martyrs, and peculiarly suitable to him-and class the "holding it till consumed" with the whole and unconsumed heart?
In the accounts of martyrdoms, little investigation was made as to what was possible. Burnet, describing Iooper's execution, says, " one of his hands fell off before he died, with the other he continued to knock on his breast some time after. To-night, grave sir, both my poor house and I Do equally desire your company: Not that we think us worthy such a guest, But that your worth will dignify our feast, With those that come; whose grace may make that seem Something, which else could hope for no esteem.
Yet shall you have, to rectify your palate, An olive, capers, or some better salad, Ushering the mutton; with a short-legged hen, If we can get her, full of eggs, and then, Limons, and wine for sauce: to these, a coney Is not to be despair'd of for our money; And though fowl now be scarce, yet there are clerks, The sky not falling, think we may have larks. I'll tell you of more, and lie, so you will come: Of partridge, pheasant, woodcock, of which some May yet be there; and godwit if we can; Knat, rail, and ruff too. IHowsoe'er my man Shall read a piece of Virgil, Tacitus, Livy, or of some better book to us, Of which we'll speak our minds, amidst our meat; And I'll profess no verses to repeat; To this if aught appear, which I not know of, That will the pastry, not my paper, show of.
Digestive cheese, and fruit there sure will be; But that which most doth take my muse and me, Is a pure cup of rich Canary wine, Which is the Mermaid's now, but shall be mine: Of which had Horace or Anacreon tasted, Their lives, as do their lines, till now had lasted.
Tobacco, nectar, or the Thespian spring, Are all but Luther's beer, to this I sing. Of this we will sup free, but moderately, And we will have no Poolv', or Parrot by; Nor shall our cups make any guilty men: But at our parting, we will be, as when We innocently met. No simple word, That shall be utter'd at our mirthful board, Shall make us sad next morning: or affright The liberty, that we'll enjoy to-night.
It is said that the following puzzling inscription was found by Captain Barth, graven on marble, among the ruins of Perse polis, and by him translated from the Arabic into Latin and English: dicas scis dicit scit it scit facias potes facit potest facit credit credas audis credit audit credit ieri potest expendas habes expendit habet petit habet judices rides j udicat videt judicat est non quoddamque nam qui quodounque saepe quod non The spirit of the thing a sort of verbal magic square seems to require the repetition of the same words in all three pairs of parallel columns.
Therefore the last two columns might have consisted of precisely the same words as the two middle ones excepting, of course, the bottom row , without injury to the sense: a circumstance that appears to have been lost sight of by whoever framed the Latin version. The key consists in taking the words of the bottom row alternately with any of those of the upper rows in the same pair of columns. Thus, the first sentence is, " Non dicas quoddamque scis, nam qui dicit quodcunque scit, smepe dicit quod non scit. The last word sees, in the last column, must be understood as sees into or comprehends.
In an appeal to the Privy Council of Madras, are the two following words, which appear to be names of estates: Arademaravasadeloovaradooyou; Kaminagadeyathooroosoomokanoogonagira. Llanvairpwllgwyngyll, a living in the diocese of Bangor, became vacant in March, , by the death of its incumbent, the Rev. Richard Prichard, et. The labor of writing the name on his benefice does not seem to have shortened his days.
The following are the names of two emnployes in the finance department at Madrid: Don Epifaunio l1irurzururdundua y Zengotita; Don Juan Nepomuceno de Burionagonatotorecagogeazcoecha. There was, until , a major in the British army named Teyoninhok7crawzen one single name. The following is taken front the fly-leaves of a copy of Gibo bon's Rome, 1st vol. The author of this work declared publicly at Brookes's a gaming-house in St.
James' Street , upon the delivery of the Spanish Rescript in June, , that there was no salvation for this country unless six of the heads of the cabinet council were cut off and laid upon the tables of both houses of parliament as examples; and in less than a fortnight he accepted a place under the same cabinet council. King George in a fright Lest Gibbon should write The story of Britain's disgrace, Thought no means more sure His pen to secure Than to give the historian a place. But his caution is vain,'Tis the curse of his reign, That his projects should never succeed; Tho' he wrote not a line, Yet a cause of decline In our author's example we read.
His book well describes How corruption and bribes O'erthrew the great empire of Rome; And his writings declare A degeneracy there, Which his conduct exhibits at home. A few words on the rI'aow apoaivtog, or Sardonius Risus, so celebrated in antiquity, may not be amiss, especially as the expression, " a Sardonic smile " is a common one in our language. In the English of the present day, a Sardonic laugh means a derisive, fiendish laugh, full of bitterness and mocking; stinging with insult and rancor. Lord Byron has hit it off in his portraiture of the Corsair, Conrad:There was a laughing devil in his sneer, That rais'd emotions both of rage and fear.
In Izaak Walton's ever delightful Cormplete Angler, Venator, on coming to Tottenham High Cross, repeats his promised verse: " it is a copy printed among some of Sir Henry Wotton's, and doubtless made either by him or by a lover of angling. In Sir J. Hawkins's edition is the following note on the word " Sardonic " in these lines: Feigned or forced smiles, from the word Sardon, the name of an herb resembling smallage, and growing in Sardinia, which, being eaten by men, contracts the muscles, and excites laughter even to death.
Vide Erasmi Adagia, tit. Sardonic, in this passage, means o forced, strained, unusual, artificial; " and is not taken in the worst sense. These lines of Sir H. Wotton's brings to mind some of Lorenzo de Medici's, in a platonic poem of his, when he contrasts the court and country. I quote Mr. Roscoe's translation:What the heart thinks, the tongue may here disclose, Nor inward grief with outward smiles is drest; Not like the world-where wisest he who knows To hide the secret closest in his breast.
Sardonic smile, so celebrated in antiquity, baffles research much more than the intemnperie; nor have modern physiologists thrown any light on the nature of the deleterious plant which produces it. The tradition at least seems still to survive in the country, and Mr. Tyndale adduces some evidence to show that the Ranmmnculus scelereats was the herb to which these exaggerated qualities were ascribed.
Some insular antiquaries have found a different solution of the ancient proverb. The ancient Sardinians, they say, like many t arbarous tribes, used to get rid of their relations in extreme old age, by throwing them alive into deep pits; which attention it was the fashion for the venerable objects of it to receive with great expressions of delight; whence the saying of a Sardinian laugh vulgo , laughing on the wrong side of one's mouth.
It seems not impossible that the phenomenon may have been a result of the effects of " Intemperie " working on weak constitutions, and in circumstances favorable to physical depression-like the epidemic chorea, and similar complaints, of which such strange accounts are read in medical books.
The history of travelling in this country, from the Creation to the present time, may be divided into four periods-those of no coaches, slow: coaches, fast coaches, railways. Whether balloons, or rockets, or some new mode which as yet has no name, because it has no existence, may come next, one cannot tell, and it is hardly worth while to think about it; for, no doubt, it will be something quite inconceivable.
The third, or fast-coach period was brief, though brilliant. I doubt whether fifty years have elapsed since thie newest news in the world of locomotive fashion was, that-to the utter confusion and defacement of the "' Sick, Lame, and Lazy," a sober vehicle, so called from the nature of its cargo, which was nightly disbanded into comfortable beds at Newbury-a new post-coach had been set up which performed the journey to Bath in a single day.
Perhaps the day extended from about five o'clock in the morning to midnight, but still the coach was, as it called itself, a "D aycoach," for it travelled all day; and if it did somewhat " add the night unto the day, and so make up the measure," the passengers had all the more for their money, and were incomparably better off as to time than they had ever been before. But after this many years elapsed before " Old Quicksilver " made good its ten miles an hour, in one unbroken trot to Exeter, and was rivalled by " Young Quicksilver "' on the road to Bristol, and beaten by the light-winged Hirondelle, that flew from Liverpool to Cheltenham, and troops of others, each faster than the foregoing, each trumpeting its own fame on its own improved bugle, and beating time all to nothing with sixteen hoofs of invisible swiftness.
I do not know anywhere a more distinct account of the commencement and progress of a journey in England, two centuries ago, than is given in Taylor's the Water-poet narrative, in prose and verse, of his travels from London to the Isle of Wight, while. Charles I. It is short as well as clear, and the stages, and the time it took to perform them, are one after another pointed out.
Moreover, he states that the journey was performed in a public coach drawn by four horses, and conducted by two coachmen. There were four passengers besides Taylor, and they started from the Rose, near HIolborn Bridge, in the Southampton coach which came weekly to that inn , on Thursday, 19th October, , and arrived on the same evening,, at 5 o'clock, at Staines.
They remained all night at the Bush, and next morning proceeded by Bagshot to Alton, where they put up at the White Hart, and again slept. On Saturday they again set off early, and by dint of " fiery speed " and "foaming bits," they reached the Dolphin at Southampton that day. The Rose, at the foot of Holborn Hill, which I can remember forty years ago, and from which the party set out, has disappeared; but the Bush, at Staines, and the Dolphin, at Southampton, still remain.
A small part of Taylor's information is given in marginal notes, but his text, which in fact contains all that illustrates the point at issue, is the following: We took one coach, two coachmen, and four horses, And merrily from London made our courses, We wheel'd the top of the heavy hill call'd Holborn, Up which hath been full many a sinful soul borne, And so along we jolted past St. Giles's, Which place from Brentford six, or near seven miles is, To Staines that night at five o'clock we coasted, Where, at the Bush, we had bak'd, boil'd, and roasted, Bright Sol's illustrious rays the day adoruing, We past Bagshot and Bawwaw Friday morning.
That night we lodg'd at the White Hart at Alton, And had good meat-a table with a salt on. Next morn we rose with blushing-cheek'd Aurora; The ways were fair, but not so fair as Flora, For Flora was a goddess and a woman, And, like the highways, to all men was common. The tract from which I quote was printed in , for the author, who was paid for it, as appeared by his title-page, in the following manner:When John Taylor hath been from London to the Isle of Wight and returned again, and at his return he do give, or cause to be given, to me a book or pamphlet of true news, and relations of passages, at the island, and to and fro in his journey, I do promise to give him, or his assignes, the sum of what I please in lawful money of England, provided that the said sum be not under six pence.
This, as many are aware, was a usual mode with Taylor and some others to pay themselves for their expeditions: the Waterpoet made many journeys of the kind, as may be seen by the list of his works in the folio of , in which, of course, his Travels from London to the Isle of Wight, in , and various others subsequently printed, could not be included. There is no English author who gives us such minute and curious information respecting old customs, edifices, and peculiarities, as Taylor, the Water-poet, the contemporary and friend of Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and of nearly all our poets and dramatists from the close of the reign of Elizabeth to the Restoration.
The two following handbills are copied from an original newsbook almost two centuries old. They are interesting, as showing not only the snail-like pace at which our ancestors were content to travel, but also how much they were willing to give for the tardy infliction. From the 26th day of April, , there will continue to go stage coaches from the George Inn without Aldersgate, London, unto the several cities and towns, for the rates, and at the times, hereafter mentioned and declared.
Every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. To Salisbury in two days for xxs. To Blandford and Dorchester in two days and half for xxxs. To Burput in three days for xxxs. To Stamford in two days for xxs. To Newark in two days and a half for xxvs. To Bawtrey in three days for xxxs.
To Doncaster and Ferribridge for xxxvs. To York in four days for XLS. Mondays and Wednesdays to Ockington and Plimouth for Ls. To Darneton Ferryhil for LS. To Durham for Lvs. To Newcastle for IIIf. Copyright , , , , , by Melvil Dewey Copyright , , , by Library Bureau Copyright , , , , , by Lake Placid Club Education Foundation Copyright , , First published anonymously in under title: A subject index. Subject not provided for The value of position Complexities in selection of class. Expansion Standard subdivisions Showing language in notation Caution Special problems. In addition, continuing Melvil Dewey's commitment to provide libraries with a subject approach for arranging their collections, the schedules have been expanded and number-building devices have been developed to permit further specification by language, geography, litera-.
The first edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification was tested by applying it to the collection of books in the Amherst College Library. It was immediately and enthusiastically received by libraries in the United States. Since that time, and especially in recent years, the Classification has spread to more than The Committee includes, in addition to members representing the Foundation's Board of Trustees, the following members representing library concerns: Walter W.
Curley, Chair-. Along with its growth in size and use, the Classification has become increasingly complex to produce. Many individuals join in a cooperative efi"ort to bring out each edition; the contributions of each and the interrelationships among them deserve mention here.
Concurrent with this growth and indeed a major reason for it have been the dramatic increase in knowledge and information and the ensuing increase in the production of books and. When one compares the first and the nineteenth editions of the Classification and reviews the phenomena that have contributed to its development, the one-hundred year retrospect comprises Classification. Volume 2 Use of the Schedules Generalities Philosophy and related disciplines Religion Social sciences Language Pure sciences Technology Applied sciences The arts Literature Belles-lettres General geography and history and their.
Michael O'Brien, Head Librarian,. Oaklawn Public Library, Illinois. Forest Press and the Forest Press Committee are assisted in their editorial responsibilities by an advisory group known as the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee. The Editorial Policy Committee represents the libraries that use Dewey, and usually meets twice a year on matters relating to the development of the Classification. The Committee is made up of professionals who have experience in a wide variety of libraries, here and abroad, and who are well versed in the theory and application of the Classification.
The members of the Committee who served during the preparation of Edition 19 are listed in the Preface. The Chief of the Decimal Classification Division, which oversees the application of Dewey numbers to Library of Congress catalog cards, is also the Editor of the Classification. In this way classification theory and practice are combined, allowing for continuous and thorough editorial review. The past four editions, A major innovation for Edition 19 should be brought to the attention of users of the Dewey Decimal Classification. Little, Inc.
Feasibility studies indicated such sufficiently positive results that this edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification was produced by computerized photocomposition. It is expected that the success of this edition will dictate continuation of the process. In addition, computer technology will have a positive impact on the editorial process.
The international acceptance of the Dewey Decimal Classification continues to grow. The British National Bibliography adopted Edition 18 in , permitting British libraries and many others throughout the English-speaking world to apply Dewey numbers to their collections. In July , a change of administration at Forest Press took place, at which time the undersigned succeeded Richard B. Sealock as Executive Director. During Richard Sealock's nine-year tenure as Executive Director, the Press and all its publications enjoyed wide acclaim from the library community.
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The membership of the Editorial Policy Committee therefore represents as wide and divergent a group of library interests as possible, and in , plays. In addition,. Canadian librarian, a member of the American Library Association, also serves on the Committee. Each edition of the DDC is greeted with mixed feelings, for it is composed of the cherished old and the unknown new. Edition 19, in the Committee's estimation, has been faithful to stability where stability is more useful than change, and it has been changed where a new vision serves us better than the old.
There are only three phoenix sections in Edition 1 the badly crowded section has been replaced by Phoenix Sociology; 2 political parties, regardless of their locale, have been provided for by Phoenix The political process; and 3 extensive changes in the local subdivisions of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales have been provided for by phoenix treatment of area notations A detailed review of the changes in Edition 19 is presented by the Editor in sections of his introduction.
Though the problems and special needs of libraries using the DDC in countries throughout the world continued to receive careful consideration in the preparation of Edition 19, a special attempt was made during this time to gather data regarding the use of the DDC in the United States and Canada. This user survey, sponsored by Forest Press and conducted in , was an attempt to determine the problems of DDC users in the United States and Canada and to seek the opinion of librarians in these two countries regarding the development of the DDC.
Some of what was learned in the survey has a. At the same time, we are well aware of its imperfections, perhaps inherent in the very nature of classification systems, and again urge you, the users of the DDC, to continue to provide us with your ever-welcome advice and suggestions. Introduction has been reorganized, notes are more plentiful, the index has been rendered more responsive, seminars for classifiers and teachers have been planned, and a manual for application of Edition 19 will appear shortly after publication of the edition.
As a listing of their names and positions indicates, they represent, as much as is possible, the varied interests and needs of libraries. Serving on the Committee during the preparation of Edition 19 were: Lois M. Chan, most. The Editorial Policy Committee recommends Edition 19 to you with mixed feelings of pride and humility.
We believe it continues the high standards shire State Library,. An international I. Formal groups connected with library associations have provided me with invaluable advice and guidance. I should like also to extend my deep appreciation to those libraries with which the Decimal Classification Division corresponds regularly on interpretation of particular numbers and their centralized application to specific titles, that is. The British Library especially Joel C.
Downing and Robert R. Expansions and improvements in the area table for the British Isles, Canada, Australia, South Africa, Latin America, and France have been made through cooperative efforts with libraries or librarians in the counconcerned. I have received unstinting support and cooperation from those individuals who are associated officially or formally with the Dewey Decimal Classification.
These include the members of the Forest Press Committee, whose names are listed in the Publisher's Foreword; and those of the Decimal Classification tries. Welsh and Joseph H. Former members of the Division during the production of Edition 19 are Charles H. Lydia C. Hsieh, Ronald W. Johnson, Geraldine O. Matthews, Marilyn Nasatir, and Helen L. Dickey, William S. Hwang, Letitia Jew, Virginia A. Schoepf, Emily K. Spears, Cosmo D. Tassone, and Edna E. Van Syoc. Bradshaw, Judy C. McDermott, Allene M. McDuffie, Gregory R.
New, Marisa C. Vandenbosch, Steven C. Wilkshire, and especially by Winton E. Matthews, Jr. Warren, a diligent and creative assistant editor. In the best sense of the phrase, she was the editor's "better half. Consolidation of gains. Edition 19 represents a consolidation of the generally accepted and well-received revisions and additions included in Editions 17 and This is a result not only of the greater breadth and depth of knowledge, but also of the growing use of the Classification as an efficient method of organizing materials by subject and of retrieving information from machine-readable storage.
However, the determination of how far to expand a given section continues to be based on a calculation of how many titles there are in that field or how many may be expected, i. A comparative table of the number of schedule and table entries in Editions 18 and 19 follows. This does not include centered entries, which are duplicated by the separate entries that follow and are encompassed by them. Neither does it include entries for which the numbers are printed in square brackets.
When one considers that every number can also be expanded by application of Tables 1, 2, 5, and 7, it is obvious therefore. In particular, very detailed stepby-step instructions for building numbers in the s have been introduced both into that schedule and into Table 3, "Subdivisions of Individual Litera-. The Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee and the Forest Press have adopted the following editorial rule to govern the objective of making Edition 19 internationally useful:. International utility. Permeating the entire edition is a continually increasing commitment to the international use and value of the DDC, which is reflected in more hospitality to needs of other cultures both through expansions generally, e.
Where there is a conflict between it is. While optional provisions to meet the needs of countries outside the United States have grown in number and in detail, some of the other options that have been authorized during the years to satisfy the needs of particular libraries, but that do not promote correct classification, have been discontinued.
Libraries following such options will continue to sacrifice the benefits to be derived from numbers assigned by centralized classification. In addition to various new provisions in Table 1, "Standard Subdivisions," there are more directives leading from unused standard subdivisions at particular places in the schedules to those numbers where, for historical reasons, the standard subdivision concepts have been placed, e.
While the index retains the same pattern as in Edition 18, it 1. Many cross references. Topics and numbers that can be subdivided are no longer printed in bold-face type. Area notations have been revised to conform to the reorganized local administrative pattern of the United Kingdom. Phoenix schedules and tables are approved by the Editorial Policy and Forest Press Committees only when the provisions of earlier editions are deemed. Melvil Dewey's mostly obsolete introduction has been dropped, but those parts of it still valuable for the practitioner and student have been incorporated into other preliminary sections.
Those who wish to 1. As usual, lists are printed of significant topics whose numbers have been changed. These lists were formerly known as "tables of concordance" and they appeared after the index in volume 3. In this edition they are called of volume "Usts of changed numbers" and they are to be found near the close for one final time the 1. It is a new policy with Edition 19 not to reprint. In addition to the relocations in the phoenix schedules, relocations; this figure may be compared with approxi-. Yet it is doubtful that anyone will consider any of the following to be insignificant: In Table 1, "Standard Subdivisions," there is a table of precedence, and will be welcomed by many as a device for arranging any subject by ethnic groups or classes of persons, while standard subdivision replaces class The use of 08 for collections has been discontinued tions as notable courts the.
In there are substantial expansions in the history periods. In optional provision. Another number oflFered only as an option would, if so used, be reused: To name some expansions and explanasion: They are all listed in this volume following Tables The long-standing rule limiting the reuse of old numbers with new meanings except in phoenix schedules has been somewhat useful relaxed, so that the editors may have a freer hand to make logical and developments.
The new rule permits a number previously used to be freely of reused if it has been vacated for at least two consecutive editions instead that had for 25 years. This means that this edition reuses routinely numbers Editions a meaning in Edition 16 but that were without meaning in more 17 and 18 , e. Numbers are occasionally reused by express permission of the Decimal Classification Editorial Pohcy Committee and the Forest Press, and in such cases are printed in italics; permisin this edition the following eleven numbers have been reused by such.
As an aid to the achievement of this purpose, nearly all libraries find it helpful, indeed necessary, to apply subject control to their books and other materials. One such form is classification, or systematic arrangement by subject. To classify a collection of objects is to place together in classes those objects which have certain characteristics in common and to separate from them the objects which do not have those characteristics.
For instance, textile fabrics can be classified 1 according to the process by which they are made, each of which may then be considered a separate class, e. Fabrics can also be classified according to any one of several other principles, such as: 2 according to the material 4 The purpose of. Librarians classify their works books, periodicals, pamphlets, sound recordsubclasses, especially. For example, because of diflFering problems of shelving, handling, and giving service, they usually separate recordings, films, atlases, newspapers, and the like, from bound volumes of more or less conventional size: in this case the characings, films, slides, pictures, prints,.
Another characteristic. But most commonly, either overall or within such categories as those named above, librarians classify works according to subject content. For example, they bring together the history books and separate them from the engineering books, within the history section they bring together the books on United States history and separate them from the books on European history, and within the U.
Roosevelt and the New Deal. Such an arrangement is most useful for eflFective retrieval of the kind of information wanted by the majority of patrons and the librarians serving them. In addition to organizing materials by subject arrangement on shelves, libraries also develop catalogs, bibliographies, and indexes in which they list books, division. These may be made manually or printed out by computer, and are capable of showing very detailed and subtle subject distinctions and relationships for the convenience of users in identifying appropriate works.
However, the development of an integrated plan that will provide systematilibraries, still do. For this reason, librarians generally found it advantageous to follow one of the already existing. Use of one of the recognized systems has the further advantages 1 that the arrangement and notation of each are widely known and comprehended by other librarians and also by laymen, and 2 that in the case of some of the systems, notably Dewey, Library of Congress, and Universal Decimal, individual works are centrally classed by one or more bibliographic services whose decisions may be utilized by subscribing institutions.
Of these commonly used systems, Dewey's Decimal Classification is the oldest and most widely used. In the United States it is the system followed by a substantial majority of all libraries, including nearly all public libraries and school libraries; in other English-speaking countries it has been adopted by a majority of libraries; elsewhere it has users in almost every nation on the has been translated, with or without abridgment, expansion, or adaptation, into scores of languages from Spanish, Norwegian, Turkish, and French to Japanese, Sinhalese, Portuguese, and Thai.
The Dewey system is now used, in one form or another, by such varied services as the Library of Congress's. Titles in many reading lists, book guides, and bibliographies have been arranged or their subjects have been identified by the Dewey Decimal Classification. Documentation FID , by agreement with Melvil Dewey as to concordance and bibliographic use, adopted the Decimal Classification as the basis for its international subject index.
This grew into the Classification Decimale, otherwise known as the Brussels Classification or, now, as the Universal Decimal Classification UDC , which has itself been translated into many languages. While many diflFerences between DDC and UDC have appeared in the intervening years, the foundations of the two remain recognizably the same. The Dewey Decimal Classification is a hierarchical system using the decimal principle for the subdivision of knowledge, as represented in publications; that is, each group in the successive division of knowledge, from the broadest to the most minute, is divided on a base of ten.
The first division is into ten main classes, , which embrace the whole of human knowledge and intellectual endeavor. Main class is used for general works on many subjects from many points of view, such as general newspapers and encyclopedias, and also for certain specialized disciplines that deal with knowledge generally, such as information and communication, library science, and journalism. Main classes consist each of a major discipline or group of related disciplines.follow url
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Following are the ten main classes with their assigned meanings: 5 6 7 8 9. Again, each division has, or at least is capable of having, ten sections, also numbered The section numbers occupy the third position in the notation. Thus, the full span of section numbers for each division listed above is in the third position , , , In the sections, the in the number is appUed to general works on the entire division, and are used for subsubclasses.
Thus, is assigned to agriculture and related technologies in general, to crops and their production, to plant injuries, diseases, pests, to field crops, to animal husbandry. The system permits further subdivision to any degree desired, with a continued decimal notation, which consists of the addition, following any set of three digits from to , of a decimal point and as many more digits as may be required.
Thus, animal husbandry is divided into Dewey are not necessarily limited each to a specific or single subject. Although many subjects have their own numbers, e. Each work acquired by a library may be assigned to one of the main classes, divisions, sections, or subsections to the degree of specificity provided by the schedules of the DDC, or to any lesser degree of specificity appropriate to the situation see section 5.
The word "class" is used to refer to a main class or a subdivision of any degree, be it or or or So that the structure may be more readily understood, in the following explanation we use one or two digits, although in practice the notation always consists of at least three digits, with zero being given its normal arithmetical value where required to fill out a number to three digits.
Thus the full DDC notation for main class 6 is The notation used to designate the complete span of each main class consists of one hundred three-digit numbers, e. The full DDC notations for these divisions, each to. The notation, or number, designates the work's class; when written on the work and on the records that describe the work, it provides a shorthand identifi-.
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Each main class consists of ten divisions, likewise numbered These division numbers occupy the second position in the notation. Division is used for general works on the entire main class, for subclasses of the main class. Thus, 60 is devoted to general works on the applied sciences, In them each work is entered under one or several classification symbols together with the natural-language concept that each stands for , all arranged in systematic classified order.
For example, if the DDC is used, this brings together under general works on metallurgy and works on the metallurgy of copper, lead, zinc, tin, and aluminum, which, in an alphabetic subject catalog, would be scattered from A through M to Z. At the same time it separates works on copper industry , copper mining , copper metallurgy , and copper art work , which, in an alphabetic subject catalog, would be fairly close together under the letters.
Similarly, a work on water may be classed with many disciplines, such as metaphysics, religion, in The index, which appears in volume 3, illustrates this quite clearly. There, under each subject, will be found the numbers in which it may be classed according to the disciplines under which it may fall. In large collections even highly specific, or close, classification leaves several works in a single class.
To distinguish further the. The book number is usually based on authorship, but may, as in biography, be based on alphabetical subarrangement of individual subjects within the class notation. For the use and construction of book numbers the reader should consult Bertha R. Huntting Co. Lists of author numbers have also been devised for libraries in which the names have difi'erent letter frequencies than are normally to be found in North American libraries, e. A special book number arrangement for works by and about William Shakespeare, which may be adapted for use with any other specific author, appears in the DDC schedules under class Among the other systems used for separation of works within classes are arrangement by authors' surnames spelled out, by initials of authors' surnames, and by dates of publication.
The primary basis for DDC arrangement and development is by discipline, as defined by the main and subordinate classes, while, strictly speaking, subjects, that is,. There is no one place for any subject in itself; a subject may appear in any or all of the disciplines. No class can be said to cover the scope of marriage, or of water, or of copper, or of Brazil; in other words, there is no single number for any of these concepts or subjects.
A work on marriage belongs in if it treats the subject from the point of view of sociology, in if from the point of view of psychology. Hierarchy in notation means that at each level there is an array of concepts, called classes, which are mutually exclusive, and which stand in a coordinate relationship to each other. With each new level the specificity of the subject's subdivision increases; that is, the classes get pro-. A given class can be and usually is coordinate with one or more other classes at the same level; and it is immediately subordinate to only one class at the next higher level; and it may be superordinate to one or more classes at the next lower level.
The increasing specificity of subjects is usually indicated by the addition of one new digit at each new level of division. Even though these principles of hierarchy are employed often enough to make them a useful basis for examining the system, there are exceptions, four of which are described below. Such steps are shown in the schedules by spans of numbers called centered on entries, because they appear with numbers, headings, and notes centered the page instead of with numbers in the usual number column. Centered entries show the spread of a sequence of numbers which is spelled out in detail immediately following, and help to show the organization of material by substituting for a broad comprehensive number that does not exist and cannot be inserted.
For example, under trade is covered in , communication in , transportation in There are no digits available to express any of these major subdivisions of , and each is shown. Technology Applied sciences Agriculture and related technologies Animal husbandry. Technology Applied sciences Engineering and allied operations Applied physics Electromagnetic and related branches of engineering In these 2 In a few instances the notation is not cases the indentions are irregular, since they do not correspond to the length. The most notable memory aid is the constant repetition of a. For example, although biology is denoted by , its branches the botanical and zoological sciences.
Another example is analytical chemistry in , with its branches qualitative chemistry in and quantitative chemistry in instead of in In nearly all area developments, the for digits 44, for instance, stand for France, 45 for Italy, 46 for Spain, 52 Japan, 73 for United States.
Consequently, since 9 is the significant notation for general history, denotes history of France, of Italy, of Spain, of Japan, of United States. Table 2, "Areas," which specifies these area numbers, constitutes. It is generally used to indicate a difi'erent basis for division of the discipline or subject represented by the digits preceding the 0.
In the following sequence Hierarchy in structure means that every concept in a notation more specific than that of a main class is subordinate to all the broader concepts of which it is a part, and whatever is true of each whole is true of all its parts. For example, whatever is stated to be true of is likewise true of all its subdivisions, what is true of is true of all its subdivisions,.
Another common repetition is that of the numbers for languages. In this pattern 2 or 21 is used for the English language, 3 or 31 for German, 4 or 41 for French, etc. In most cases the numbers for the various languages in main class and the various literatures in main class are. In other subjects where the basis of subdivision of and The numbers in Table.
For example, in A special kind of patterned repetition. Virtually any subject or discipline may be presented in various forms: in a synopsis or outline, in a periodical, in tables, in illustrations. Similarly, most subjects may have certain modes of. These common forms and modes are designated collectively as standard subdivisions, and they may be applied wherever they are appropriate.
Their notation consists. These digits may be added to any significant notation taken or derived from the schedules, e. A valuable feature of Dewey, not shared by some of the other commonly used classification systems, is the adaptability of its notation to the needs of libraries of difi'erent sizes and natures. The DDC can be used equally as well for broad classification as for close.
For example, a small library, or a large one with only a few titles on the subject, can class the production of any and all field crops in , without subdivision. A somewhat larger library can class general works in , works on production of cereal crops in A library with a still larger collection can divide its books into such detail as it requires. As any library's collection increases in size, its books can be diff'erentiated to a finer and finer degree of specificity simply by the addition of further digits to the notation.
A work on crystal radio sets can be placed in , The full edition of the DDC may be used by general libraries of any size, from the largest, which may follow it in full detail for most subjects, to the smallest, which may reduce any or all schedules to the degree considered desirable. The abridged edition supplies reduction on a ready-made basis and is convenient for small libraries to use on that account. Except at and below its own level, the abridged version does not uniformly provide help in making judicious decisions about what schedules to reduce and how far to reduce them to meet specific local needs; this the classifier must decide on the basis of the recognized demands of the local situation and expected patterns of growth.
Note: In this guide an extensive repetition of pronouns to denote the classifier is unavoidable. While realizing that some readers will find distasteful the constant use of ''he, " ''his, " and "him, " to refer generically to classifiers of both sexes, the editors and the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee find any other device or circumlocution either awkward or artificial, or an intrusion upon the sense of the exposition, and they have agreed to use the traditional masculine forms in their generic sense.
Before the classifier tries to use the Dewey Decimal Classification, he should acquaint himself with the system as a whole. In particular, he should study the three main summaries at the end of this volume and learn the first summary of the ten main classes; he should then leaf through the schedules in volume 2, observing the many summaries of specific portions.
Knowledge of the pattern will come rapidly with use, and especially classifying, he consults the schedules first and only verifies his decisions. He should notice the effect of the principle of hierarchy: each entry is a part of and governed by every entry superior to it.
To understand the full meaning and force of Arrangement of individual works of belles-lettres is first by the discipline literature, then by original language, then by literary form, then by period of composition. Detailed instructions appear under centered entry In all other classes , , For example, a. In history and law, however, the place is identified as a major characteristic of the subject. For example, a periodical on the history of the New Deal gives. Information regarding the subject of the work may often be obtained from bibliographies, catalogs, biographical dictionaries, histories of literature, encyclopedias, reviews, and other reference works, fail, and 7 Subject experts should be consulted when all other methods sometimes for verification of a tentative decision.
The classifier should note that many works cover two or three or many subjects, considered separately or in their interrelationships. Also, many works deal with two or more aspects of one or more subjects, that is, with a subject or subjects within two or several disciplines; examples are works treating of both the economics and the technology of the textile manufacturing industry; of both nuclear physics and nuclear engineering; of both architectural design and construction principles of dwelling houses; and of the sociological, ethical.
Sometimes the title indicates what the work is about; however, this is often misleading, and some further investigation should always be made as a. Thus, Before he can it, the classifier must know exactly what of view. Before considering the problems involved in the application of the schedules to such compound and complex subjects as those just mentioned, it is desirable to delineate the procedures.
Having determined the subject of the work, and the discipline within which that subject is treated, the classifier is ready to class it, or place it within the system. There are two basic approaches to the Classification: direct, through the schedules, and indirect, through the index. Beginners for classing a. In fact, the classifier should note that, whether he is a beginner or an expert, he should never class solely from the index.
The index provides leads to the schedules but is not exhaustive and can never reproduce the wealth of information available in them. On the other hand, the index can be used profitably to verify the correctness of a number chosen from the schedules. If his approach is direct, the classifier will first determine into which of the ten main classes the work falls. If the subject is copper, he must decide whether it relates to the science of copper class 5, i.
Having chosen the proper main class, then, excluding all other main classes from his mind, he determines into which of its divisions the book falls.
If the subject is copper technology, it may be copper as an engineering material division 62, i. Then in the same way he determines the proper section, subsection, and subsubsection, until he has come to the most specific number, used by or appropriate to the library, that will encompass the subject of the work. See also section 10 on reduction. Even if that number is less specific than the subject of the work in hand, he has found the right place. Possibly a future expansion will give an even more detailed number. For example, a work on the infinitive in the English language belongs under , even though encompasses all of English grammar.
At each step on the way the classifier should look carefully at the notes and directions, making certain that he has not followed a false trail, perhaps even chosen the wrong main class. He should not depend solely on the three main summaries or on any of the special summaries; they exist only to speed will usually find the latter. In that case it is most important that he go up the hierarchical ladder, testing at each level to see if the particular subject of his book belongs within the concept named and described.
Whether he goes up or down he should If. If the classifier's approach in a given situation is through the index, he should for first locate the entry for the subject, then examine the subheads under it the proper aspect. If, for example, his work is on copper, he will find under "Copper" various aspects, subaspects, and subsubaspects.
Finding the most. The more reliable approach, however, is to go directly to the schedules, using the index if necessary to locate the proper discipline; only when he is uncertain specific. For more detailed information on use of the index, see section A full description of the important features of the headings and notes follows in sections 8.
Each heading consists of a word or phrase so inclusive that incomit covers all subordinate topics and entries. The actual wording may be plete, because, from the principle of hierarchy, the heading must be read as part of the larger group that includes it, e. If two terms in a heading are separated by a space, the first includes but is broader than the second, e. A term in parentheses is synAmerica, but only Madagascar onymous or nearly so with the term preceding it, e.
Malagasy Republic. A heading includes the total concept expressed by it, even if some parts of that total concept are explicitly provided for in numbers that are not subdivisions of the number assigned to the heading. Cross references section 8. For example, Literatures of English. See also section 8. Obtaining employment. They are enumerations of. On the other hand, when the text says "various specific," works dealing collectively with a number of instances of the subject are to be classed in the number at hand. For example, "Construction in various specific materials" has subdivisions and is itself to be used for a work on construction in several diflFerent materials, e.
In some instances a heading requires, for complete understanding, the limitations stated in the note following it, e. Other headings are followed by scope notes enumerating specific qualifications applicable to the subject and its subdivisions, e. For example, These latter topics are for. Notes of. An specified topic or concept it means, class the force; hierarchical has "here" subdivisions of this number.
A special kind of comprehensive work is the interdisciplinary work, which deals with the topic from the point of view of more than one discipline, e. For more detail, see at this point that will. Because there are sometimes legitimate reasons for placing works in numbers other than those provided in the schedules, some alternatives are provided, with the editors' preference clearly shown. More detail on options is given in section 8.
The procethe subdivisions are not specifically enumerated dures to be observed are as follows: which the classifier may 8. Tables supply digits more specific. The add to certain numbers in the schedules to make them classifier should these auxiliary tables are not class numbers and the. Each instruction indicates under For example, "Add 'Areas Geographical treatment [of wages], there appears the instruction, Standard subdivisions, which are enumerated in Table 1, generally consist of two or more.
See section 8. But in some classes, for various reasons, notation beginning with is or has previously been used for another purpose, in which case the classifier is instructed to use two Os, e. This instruction does not have hierarchical force, but applies only exactly as stated, except under the circumstances described below in the second example in section 8. Sometimes the use of a for another purpose appears inconspicuously in an add note see section 8. For example, at It follows that standard subdivisions on United Kingdom foreign policy must be classed in Otherwise The classifier is reminded of this requirement by an asterisk and footnote, "Use extra digits of.
Frequently a note ofi"ers the opportunity to expand a given number or series of numbers even though. It will. For example, to obtain The number for geography of a specific location, area notations are added to Or, history 9 of is always stated 8. Similarly, the base number. For example, under Here the number for viral diseases in the sequence is Sometimes a complete class number is added to another class number, e. Sometimes one "add" must be derived from another "add.
Sometimes numbers are derived by adding first from a table and then from another schedule, or, in the reverse order, first from another schedule and then from a table, e. The classifier should add only to the extent that is appropriate to the sequence that is to be developed. Occasionally some numbers in a sequence from which numbers are to be added should be omitted because the topics in those numbers are otherwise provided for.
For example, ;. Another example occurs at Also, he anywhere to the right of a decimal point. A similar for standard with the add instruction an instruction to use two Os. Sometimes notes in the principles, him assistance but at other times he must rely on a few general may serve as a and occasionally simply on his judgment. The following rules and to maintain guide to determine the correct number for a specific work. Follow stated instructions at the point of application or anywhere above that point in the hierarchy. Instructions are most commonly given in the sched 1.
They may be in the form of a a table of precedence, b an order of precedence note, or c. If the classifier happens to arrive first at Again, at Zoology the classifier. The note at is a cross reference rather than a cross classification note, but serves the same function. Examples: class manufacture of metal chairs in is. In the rare instances where this general rule for Os is not to be applied there is a specific instruction in the schedules. For example, in accordance.
Example: Class earthquakes in Japan in Example: Class harvesting of club wheat in Given adequate reason, he should do so. For example, a work on quiltmaking should, according. For example, breeding Often the notation provides for the special concept not only at the general level, as with dog breeding and special topics in the general subject of. For the use of standard subdivision notation 04 for special topics of. Since at Class elsewhere notes are used for a variety different of purposes, but in effect all of them instruct the classifier to class in a number topics in some way related to one or more of the topics covered by the entry in which the note appears.
The chief purposes are the following: by specifying citation order, as de 1 To avoid inconsistent classification "Class scribed in section 8. Similarly the shift from If the relocation is total, i. Total relocations are not to be confused with other, similar types of entries in square brackets and their instructions. One type, described more fully in section 8. However, the effect of all these, like that of the class elsewhere notes. Relocation notes are hierarchical in force at the point of instruction, and usually also at the point led to. For example, the note under Except when needed to clear up persistent misconceptions, the schedules make no effort to lead from the subject in one discipline or aspect to.
Not all subdivisions of a concept are necessarily to be found in notations subordinate to that used for the concept as a whole. Compare section 8. Cross references are a special kind of instruction note leading the classifier from the stated or implied totality of a given subject to component parts of that subject that are provided for elsewhere than in the All class.
The totality from which component parts are separated need not appear in a heading, but may be in a note, e. Class here comprehensive works on trade. Only the barriers. Some cross references have also the force of cross classification notes; for. This restriction generally need not be applied to standard subdivision Individual [persons], e. Cross references have hierarchical force. For example, the cross reference from , in which are classed comprehensive works on pure and applied sciences, to , means that any subdivision of , in its applied aspect, belongs in , e.
By the principle of hierarchy the heading and notes applying to a given class should apply also. Neither need this restriction apply to any number which, because of the nature of its subject content, appears unlikely to be given future subdivision, e. Neither should this restriction apply if the subject of the work, even though less than the whole number, constitutes the greater part of the number "approximates the whole" , or constitutes several subdivisions of it.
Nor should the restriction apply if the subject of the work overlaps or is broader than the heading, as, for example, at These exceptions are here summarized. The following parts of an entry do not have hierarchical force: 1 Inclusion notes section 8. All other parts of an entry have hierarchical force. Having analyzed the number chosen for the work in hand through all the steps of its hierarchical ladder, and having decided that it is the best and most specific number, the classifier is ready to consider what further specification is desirable, i.
If, for example, the work deals with the subject in the. United States only, or in Norway or in Fiji, he may add or or , as the case may be. The complete list of standard subdivisions appears in Table 1 in this volume. The classifier should observe several important restrictions on the use of standard subdivisions. The first is that, unless there are instructions permitting their use, he should be cautious about adding standard subdivisions to a number chosen for a work that deals with a subject more specific than the content of the number, i.
The reason is that there is the chance that in a later edition the subject will be subdivided and he will then face complications in adjustment. For example, perhaps in Edition 20 medical office buildings. Contrary or special instructions are to be followed when given, e. A second restriction is that the classifier should not. The editors recommend that the classifier not add one standard subdivision to another standard subdivision unless there are specific instructions to do so. If the classifier finds that two or more standard subdivisions are applicable to a particular work, he should use the table of precedence at the beginning of Table 1 to determine which one he should use.
And if for some reason he feels he must use more than one, that table indicates the order in which to use them. Needless to say, this recommendation is not in eflFect where specific instructions authorize the double use of area notation. Although it is their standard meanings that make these subdivisions "standard," sometimes a particular standard subdivision when applied to a given subject may logically be assigned one or more meanings that are extensions of and compatible with the basic meaning, and the classifier will then find in the schedules an entry or group of entries specifying the extension.
Other examples are the substantial extensions 8. Sometimes a concept ordinarily placed in a standard subdivision number is found instead with an irregular notation; most such instances date from earlier editions of the DDC, prepared before the table of standard subdivisions became as detailed as it now is. These instances are noted under the numbers where the classifier would normally expect to 8. One standard subdivision re-. As the note in Table 1 points out: "Use this subdivision only when it is specifically set forth in the schedules. The fields of knowledge grow so fast that any edition of the DDC is outdated before it appears.
There is little doubt that the classifier will have works on subjects for which the schedules and index have provided no place either explicitly or implicitly. He should not make up his own number for such a subject: the next edition could easily place the subject in a different number and use the number he devised for sions. The classifier's guiding principle is to follow exactly the procedure outlined in section 8. If he does this carefully, he will rarely be proved wrong.
He should always use the most specific number possible in the schedules, even if it is only a three-digit number. Then, if the editors supply a more detailed number later, he may use it by simply adding digits to the number originally chosen. Two examples from the past may be illustrative. Edition 16 provided for astronautical engineering in A classifier with a work on bioastronautics the physiology of humankind in space might have been tempted to class it in Edition 17 provided no place for DNA and RNA, but a classifier following the principles outlined here would have used A third example is a classic illustration of what not to do.
In the 14th and prior editions As a consequence many classifiers placed works on the sociology and political relations of Jews not in "standing room" in the broad numbers and The importance to the classifier of an awareness of the meaning of schedule structure cannot be overstated, and the princi-.
It is obvious that the classifier should not use a standard subdivision until he has made sure from the schedules that it has not been assigned an irregular notation or meaning. When a standard subdivision or span of standard subdivisions is specifically named in the schedules, it is understood that, unless there. The position of a notation, whether for a direct or a general subdivision of a topic, imparts a meaning to the provision attached to that notation.
Direct subdivisions follow superordinate entries without the interposition of Os in the notation. The length of the notation is generally a reliable indication of the degree of specificity of the entry in relation to its basic discipline. The specific entry regardless of length is described by the preceding superordinate entries those with shorter notation all the way up to the main class.
A topic subordinate to a broader concept must have all the properties of that broader. General subdivisions are usually developed from superordinate entries. Standard subdivisions are of this category. General subdivisions always precede direct subdivisions of the entry to which they are subordinate. However, general 0 concepts that apply to direct non-0 subdivisions of that entry must be classed with those subdivisions. For example, periodicals on agriculture in general are classed in The foregoing rules and princi-.
If the DDC is being used as a shelf classification, obviously the classifier must choose one place and class the work there. Since most libraries employ other types of subject control in addition to shelf classification, such as a subject catalog,. Specific instructions for classing a whole variety of compound and complex subjects are provided in such sources as W. Because it is impossible to anticipate all combinations, or even a considerable percentage of them, a few basic principles, from which all the specific rules stem, are here set forth for guidance. This emphasis may be a reflection of the relative amount of space devoted to each subject, or of the author's purpose, or of both.
For example, as a general rule the classifier should class with Keats an analytical work dealing with Shakespeare's influence on Keats. The author's purpose in such a work may be said to be an exposition of Keats's work. Even though the treatment of Shakespeare may actually occupy more space, if the author's purpose is pervasive throughout then greater weight should be given to purpose, which would place the work with other 9. But if the treatment of Keats occupies only a small portion of the work, say less than a third, and does not permeate the portion that deals specifically with Shakespeare, then the preponderance of space devoted to Shakespeare should carry more weight than the author's purpose of explaining Keats, and the work should be placed with other works on Shakespeare.
Such decisions are sometimes very difficult to make. If the three or more constitute the major part of the broader subject, he may use standard subdivisions as if his work approximated the whole broader subject see section 8. If the three or more are not part of a single broader subject or discipline, he should class the work in the s, e. Some classifiers prefer to class any work on two subjects that are both part of a broader one with the broader, and some prefer to class such a work with the one treated first in the work, but these procedures are not recommended.
Assuming there is no preponderance or emphasis, and using See also section 9. However, such an instruction is. Lacking apparent emphasis or preponderance, and lacking specific valid instructions on treatment of interdisciplinary works and relatively few such notes appear the classifier should class a work dealing with a subject from two or more aspects with the underlying, broader, or purposive discipline, e.
In certain subjects, one subtopic may be so large, or so often written about, or so emphasized in library materials, that it can usually be said to approximate the whole subject. Works on such subjects should be classed with the whole except where the work itself emphasizes that it deals with the part. Examples: 1 Many works on "natural history" 9. Class in unless the work makes.
To class a work on two or more interrelated subjects considered from two or more aspects, the classifier may have to apply a combination of the foregoing. Class in Class general U. Note use of For example, a work dealing with both the scientific and the engineering principles of electrodynamics is classed in These are represented by spans of numbers in centered entries. Compare section 5. Since in a shelf classification a given book can have but one class number, every centered entry is followed by a note stating what single number the.
The basis for the editors' choice of number varies, since each case is dependent on the schedule structure for the particular. For example, general principles of radio communication engineering are classed in The classifier should ordinarily place with the original work translations, abridgments, criticisms, and reviews of it, commentaries on it, indexes and concordances to it. However, works about manuscripts and book rarities should be classed in , and works about the art in a book with the appropriate art. Since an adaptation modifies the original work in form, scope, presentation, and possibly language, it may or may not be classed with it, depending upon the amount and kind of modification.
It is normally the function of the book number to distinguish among. It has been noted that one of the valuable features of the notation is its adaptability to both close and broad classification. How close or how broad the classification of a specific library should be is a matter of administrative determination.