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Can you say what you mean by a common underlying cause of different populisms today? Yes, sure. Let me state the punchline or conclusion right away and present my reasons for it by looking at some of the particular cases of populism that you mention in your opening question.
I think any serious analysis of the deepest, most underlying, causal condition for the rise of different, even sometimes contradictory, populisms in recent years is a combination of two things: the chronic hardships imposed on ordinary people by capitalism in the last three decades and the complete inability of the spectrum of political positions that are allowed to surface in the arena of politics to address or even to properly develop a discourse with which to understand and criticise it. This last point I am emphasising is of the utmost importance.
Liberalism, despite its shrill opposition to populism, is in fact complicit with the worst aspects of populism that have made it a pejorative term. If populism is irrational today, almost all those who write against it are implicitly irrational as well, even if their irrationality does not take the same surface form. Until one sees through liberalism and its thicket of shallow criticism of populism to this crucial point, one will not see the extent to which liberalism as a political doctrine and position has been the constant bedfellow in these last few decades of neoliberal political economies, and how it, therefore, is an essential part of the underlying causes that give rise to the contemporary populism today that we are trying to analyse.
In fact, in my view it is the deepest part, it is the deepest enemy of the Left, in the sense that it is the most submerged, submerged under its own self-proclaimed moral high ground and, therefore, the hardest to unearth. He is only one example; liberal commentators like him are everywhere in the mainstream press. But there is no question of liberalism dying. Paul Krugman, who claims status as a progressive economist, supported Hillary Clinton against Sanders in the primaries. Indeed, even Rolling Stone magazine, which is supposed to represent youthful aspirations, endorsed Clinton over Sanders.
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In saying all this, I am not denying that Hillary Clinton would have been better than Trump. As I said somewhere before, it goes without saying that she would have been better than Trump. It does not. Even if one supported him, it would be foolish to think his mildly social-democratic commitments would have succeeded in completely or seriously undermining the sway of contemporary capitalism. But it is a sign of what liberalism has come to mean that people speaking in its name on the entire spectrum from Edward Luce to Paul Krugman view Sanders as anathema.
So, what I am stressing is that liberal orthodoxy is not dying at all. It is everywhere flourishing, and its chief work while in opposition is to make sure that there are no conceptual and critical resources that surface in the political zeitgeist by which to oppose the right-wing populists except those offered by the liberal orthodoxy itself. But let me just step back a bit and come back to this critique of liberalism a little later. A great deal has been said about Brexit along the lines I just mentioned about how it was prompted primarily by the dissatisfaction of working people in England let me just talk about England and not the rest of Britain so as to not complicate the question with devolutionary issues , especially outside the city of London.
In fact, [Margaret] Thatcher openly said that her greatest achievement was the creation of New Labour, which is to say the arrangement of a divorce between Labour and labour. But let me just add two or three things to these familiar points about regional working-class dissatisfaction prompting Brexit. In fact, umpteen essays have been written on how democracy should be restricted to the routines of the quadrennial or quintennial clock at the electoral ballot to deliver representation on a package of issues and policy matters without intrusively appealing to the people with the dangerous ultra-democratic weapon of referendums on single issues.
They simply felt they could not make a difference, so why bother to vote. And the referendum by contrast in fact gave them a visible opportunity to feel that they could make a difference, so they came out and voted. A second point worth noting is that the vote for Brexit may have been much larger than it was.
I think this divide between attitudes of the regions versus those of the major metropoles is somewhat different in these places from what they are in England and the old world. In the U. And this has a long and interesting history and intellectual history that is woven in with the history.
In England, privatisation of the commons happened by brute force with the enclosures, and then Locke came along and presented this argument in that Second Treatise to claim that what was happening by brute force was in fact a rational political and moral achievement. However, he declared America to be that vast expanse of the state of nature, for which there was no artifice of a theoretical device needed to philosophically consolidate an ongoing practice of enclosures. The very idea of America both for Locke and Turner summarising a whole outlook was founded on the ideal of privatised land as the source of genuine wealth.
This suspicion and hostility has surfaced again and again, both in the religious Right and in the smaller town working people, who now support Trump. And this feeling for the land as the source of genuine wealth and distrust of the big metropolitan centres as late-coming, fly-by-night generators of wealth are generally true of settler colonialisms. And that is why you find the capitals of these countries were set up not in the large cities but in smaller towns: Ottawa not Toronto, Pretoria not Johannesburg, Canberra not Melbourne, etc. Let me not repeat the familiar analyses of the Brexit vote as one owing to the working class in the neglected, deindustrialised regions of England wanting their nation to pull out of a supra-nation that favoured only the development of the financialised city of London.
Ever since the end of the Second World War, every good thing that was available to a working person was made available by policies regarding health, housing, education, pensions for old age, job-seeking allowances, etc. Nobody knows or has clearly elaborated on what mechanisms for dispensing such policies would even so much as look like at the site of the supra-nation.
This is a point of greater generality than the issues underlying the working-class vote for Brexit. Britain, of course, has its own currency, but you can ask a similar question about the eurozone as well. The Right and Left populisms in Europe prompted by working-class dissatisfaction should also prompt a prior question: Why was a relatively well-functioning Common Market transformed into the eurozone?
What were the economic motivations for it? I keep asking economists about this but never get a clear answer. One keeps reading of the lofty cultural and political motivations: to create a more cosmopolitan and less parochial Europe, to create peace after two highly destructive and internecine world wars. But, given how things turned out for the utterly helpless working people of Greece, Spain, Portugal, even Italy, has anyone ever fully analysed what economic motivations there were behind it, what role the banking and corporate elites in Europe played in setting up an arrangement without any governance mechanisms to ensure the usual safety nets for working people?
But I am saying that the origins of the supra-nation of Europe are shrouded in obscurity regarding the economic motivations for it, and it is very hard to get a clear story about what these motivations were from historians and economists. And given how things turned out, it is tempting to fall into these conjectures which are worth inquiring into in order to understand the origins of an idea that was prematurely put forth and erected without any institutions of governance to make sure things turn out differently.
Recently, Prabhat Patnaik said that the European Left and the Left in the West in general are not willing to attack globalisation because they think the only alternative to it is right-wing nationalism. Yes, that is very plausible. It is the echo in the contemporary European Left of what I was saying earlier was the standard story that was given in the first place to motivate a European Union. And now, as Patnaik says, the European Left is similarly inhibited from criticising the very idea of the union for fear of a return to that ugly nationalism and parochialism.
Yes, quite so, that is the crucial point and that is a very complex business and one has to be careful about the issues at stake. So, take, for example, [Slavoj] Zizek in an essay during the refugee crisis spawned by the massive dislocation of populations as a result of the civil wars and Western invasions of different regions in the Middle East [West Asia]. He starts off impeccably by blaming Western military misadventures for a lot of this dislocation, and he, therefore, supports a generous policy of hospitality that should be shown by European nations to the desperate plight of refugees seeking some permanent station in their flight.
And then he says something like this.
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That is the price to be paid for European hospitality. These rules should be clearly stated and enforced, by repressive measures—against foreign fundamentalists as well as our own racists—wherever and whenever necessary. The plain fact is that though secularism and liberal rights and all that are certainly very admirable things, they can become a tribal weapon, a parochial weapon, in pronouncements of this kind against migrant communities.
On this score, Zizek, as a leading European leftist, is indistinguishable from people whom he strongly disagrees with such as European liberals like Bernard Henry-Levy. But since you agree that there are some very bad aspects to the working-class populism that supports Trump and Brexit such as its xenophobia, how would you relate this to your sympathy for the working people who join these populist movements?
As I said, one can probably only skim the surface in a short interview, but still there are some obvious things to say and they are worth saying. Many among those who voted for Trump dislike his racism and misogyny. They also openly acknowledge his mendacity. And, since he won the presidential election by a narrow margin, if these among his supporters had voted for his opponent, Hillary Clinton, he would not have won. In fact, this suggests that had the contest been between Trump and Sanders, Trump might well have lost.
So, the real thing to be analysed is why, despite this fact of acknowledging him to be less than ideal in all the respects I mentioned, many voted for him anyway, rather than Hillary Clinton. By Westerners took advantage of their new technologies, sallied forth into unknown waters, expanded their power and the Age of Discovery began, with Western explorers from seafaring nations like Portugal and Castile later Spain and later Holland, France and England setting forth from the " Old World " to chart faraway shipping routes and discover "new worlds".
Rather than Asia, Columbus landed in the Bahamas , in the Caribbean. Spanish colonization followed and Europe established Western Civilization in the Americas. The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama led the first sailing expedition directly from Europe to India in —, by the Atlantic and Indian oceans, opening up the possibility of trade with the East other than via perilous overland routes like the Silk Road.
Ferdinand Magellan , a Portuguese explorer working for the Spanish Crown under the Crown of Castile , led an expedition in — which became the first to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean and the first to cross the Pacific. The Americas were deeply affected by European expansion, due to conquest, sickness, and introduction of new technologies and ways of life.
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Portugal also expanded in the Americas, attempting to establish some fishing colonies in northern North America first with a relatively limited duration and conquering half of South America and calling their colony Brazil. These Western powers were aided not only by superior technology like gunpowder , but also by Old World diseases which they inadvertently brought with them, and which wiped out large segments Amerindian population. The natives populations, called Indians by Columbus, since he originally thought he had landed in Asia but often called Amerindians by scholars today , were converted to Catholicism and adopted the language of their rulers, either Spanish or Portuguese.
They also adopted much of Western culture. Many Iberian settlers arrived, and many of them intermarried with the Amerindians resulting in a so-called Mestizo population, which became the majority of the population of Spain's American empires. The Dutch, English, and French all established colonies in the Caribbean and each established a small South American colony. The French established two large colonies in North America, Louisiana in the center of the continent and New France in the northeast of the continent.
The French were not as intrusive as the Iberians were and had relatively good relations with the Amerindians, although there were areas of relatively heavy settlement like New Orleans and Quebec. Many French missionaries were successful in converting Amerindians to Catholicism. This colony was eventually conquered by the nearby Dutch colony of New Netherland including New Amsterdam. New Netherland itself was eventually conquered by England and renamed New York.
Although England's American empire began in what is today Canada , they soon focused their attention to the south, where they established thirteen colonies on North America's Atlantic coast. The English were unique in that rather than attempting to convert the Amerindians, they simply settled their colonies with Englishmen and pushed the Amerindians off their lands. In the Americas, it seems that only the most remote peoples managed to stave off complete assimilation by Western and Western-fashioned governments.
These include some of the northern peoples i. Of these, the Quechua people , Aymara people , and Maya people are the most numerous- at around 10—11 million, 2 million, and 7 million, respectively. Bolivia is the only American country with a majority Amerindian population. It involved the transfer of goods unique to one hemisphere to another. Westerners brought cattle , horses , and sheep to the New World, and from the New World Europeans received tobacco , potatoes , and bananas.
Other items becoming important in global trade were the sugarcane and cotton crops of the Americas, and the gold and silver brought from the Americas not only to Europe but elsewhere in the Old World. Much of the land of the Americas was uncultivated, and Western powers were determined to make use of it. At the same time, tribal West African rulers were eager to trade their prisoners of war, and even members of their own tribes as slaves to the West.
The West began purchasing slaves in large numbers and sending them to the Americas. This slavery was unique in world history for several reasons. Firstly, since only black Africans were enslaved, a racial component entered into Western slavery which had not existed in any other society to the extent it did in the West. Unlike in some other cultures, slaves in the West were used primarily as field workers. Many Westerners did eventually come to question the morality of slavery. This early anti-slavery movement, mostly among clergy and political thinkers, was countered by pro-slavery forces by the introduction of the idea that blacks were inferior to European whites, mostly because they were non-Christians, and therefore it was acceptable to treat them without dignity.
They also converted to Christianity. After trading with African rulers for some time, Westerners began establishing colonies in Africa. They also established relations with the Kingdom of Kongo in central Africa before, and eventually the Kongolese converted to Catholicism. The Dutch established colonies in modern-day South Africa , which attracted many Dutch settlers.
Western powers also established colonies in West Africa. However, most of the continent remained unknown to Westerners and their colonies were restricted to Africa's coasts. Westerners also expanded in Asia. During this time, the Dutch began their colonisation of the Indonesian archipelago, which became the Dutch East Indies in the early 19th century, and gained port cities in Sri Lanka and Malaysia and India.
Spain conquered the Philippines and converted the inhabitants to Catholicism. Missionaries from Iberia including some from Italy and France gained many converts in Japan until Christianity was outlawed by Japan's emperor. Some Chinese also became Christian, although most did not.
Most of India was divided up between England and France. As Western powers expanded they competed for land and resources. In the Caribbean , pirates attacked each other and the navies and colonial cities of countries, in hopes of stealing gold and other valuables from a ship or city. This was sometimes supported by governments. Between and , the three Anglo-Dutch wars were fought, of which the last two were won by the Dutch. It involved several powers fighting on several continents.
In Europe Prussia defeated Austria. When the war ended in , New France and eastern Louisiana were ceded to England, while western Louisiana was given to Spain. France's lands in India were ceded to England. Prussia was given rule over more territory in what is today Germany. The Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon had been the first documented Westerner to land in Australia in    Another Dutchman, Abel Tasman later touched mainland Australia, and mapped Tasmania and New Zealand for the first time, in the s.
The English navigator James Cook became first to map the east coast of Australia in Cook's extraordinary seamanship greatly expanded European awareness of far shores and oceans: his first voyage reported favourably on the prospects of colonisation of Australia; his second voyage ventured almost to Antarctica disproving long held European hopes of an undiscovered Great Southern Continent ; and his third voyage explored the Pacific coasts of North America and Siberia and brought him to Hawaii , where an ill-advised return after a lengthy stay saw him clubbed to death by natives.
Europe's period of expansion in early modern times greatly changed the world. New crops from the Americas improved European diets. This, combined with an improved economy thanks to Europe's new network of colonies, led to a demographic revolution in the West, with infant mortality dropping, and Europeans getting married younger and having more children. The West became more sophisticated economically, adopting Mercantilism , in which companies were state-owned and colonies existed for the good of the mother country.
The West in the early modern era went through great changes as the traditional balance between monarchy, nobility and clergy shifted. With the feudal system all but gone, nobles lost their traditional source of power. Meanwhile, in Protestant countries, the church was now often headed by a monarch , while in Catholic countries, conflicts between monarchs and the Church rarely occurred and monarchs were able to wield greater power than they ever had in Western history. At the opening of the 15th century, tensions were still going on between Islam and Christianity.
Europe, dominated by Christians, remained under threat from the Muslim Ottoman Turks. The Turks had migrated from central to western Asia and converted to Islam years earlier. Their capture of Constantinople in , thus extinguishing the Eastern Roman Empire , was a crowning achievement for the new Ottoman Empire. Under the leadership of the Spanish, a Christian coalition destroyed the Ottoman navy at the battle of Lepanto in ending their naval control of the Mediterranean.
However, the Ottoman threat to Europe was not ended until a Polish led coalition defeated the Ottoman at the Battle of Vienna in The 16th century is often called Spain's Siglo de Oro golden century. From its colonies in the Americas it gained large quantities of gold and silver, which helped make Spain the richest and most powerful country in the world. His attempt to unite these lands was thwarted by the divisions caused by the Reformation and ambitions of local rulers and rival rulers from other countries. Another great monarch was Philip II — , whose reign was marked by several Reformation conflicts, like the loss of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada.
These events and an excess of spending would lead to a great decline in Spanish power and influence by the 17th century. After Spain began to decline in the 17th century, the Dutch, by virtue of its sailing ships, became the greatest world power, leading the 17th century to be called the Dutch Golden Age. The Dutch followed Portugal and Spain in establishing an overseas colonial empire — often under the corporate colonialism model of the East India and West India Companies.
After the Anglo-Dutch Wars, France and England emerged as the two greatest powers in the 18th century. Louis XIV became king of France in His reign was one of the most opulent in European history. He built a large palace in the town of Versailles. In the north of the empire, Prussia emerged as a powerful Protestant nation.
Under many gifted rulers, like King Frederick the Great , Prussia expanded its power and defeated its rival Austria many times in war. Ruled by the Habsburg dynasty, Austria became a great empire, expanding at the expense of the Ottoman Empire and Hungary. One land where absolutism did not take hold was England, which had trouble with revolutionaries. James's son, Charles I resisted the power of Parliament. When Charles attempted to shut down Parliament, the Parliamentarians rose up and soon the all of England was involved in a civil war.
Parliament declared a kingless commonwealth but soon appointed the anti-absolutist leader and staunch Puritan Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. Cromwell enacted many unpopular Puritan religious laws in England, like outlawing alcohol and theaters, although religious diversity may have grown. After his death, the monarchy was restored under Charles's son, who was crowned Charles II.
His son, James II succeeded him. James and his infant son were Catholics. Not wanting to be ruled by a Catholic dynasty, Parliament invited James's daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange , to rule as co-monarchs.
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They agreed on the condition James would not be harmed. Realizing he could not count on the Protestant English army to defend him, he abdicated following the Glorious Revolution of Before William III and Mary II were crowned however, Parliament forced them to sign the English Bill of Rights , which guaranteed some basic rights to all Englishmen , granted religious freedom to non-Anglican Protestants, and firmly established the rights of Parliament. In , the Act of Union of were passed by the parliaments of Scotland and England , merging Scotland and England into a single Kingdom of Great Britain , with a single parliament.
This new kingdom also controlled Ireland which had previously been conquered by England. Ruled by the Protestant Ascendancy , Ireland eventually became an English-speaking land, though the majority population preserved distinct cultural and religious outlooks, remaining predomininantly Catholic except in parts of Ulster and Dublin. By then, the British experience had already contributed to the American Revolution. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was an important European center for the development of modern social and political ideas.
It was famous for its rare quasi-democratic political system, praised by philosophers such as Erasmus ; and, during the Counter-Reformation , was known for near-unparalleled religious tolerance, with peacefully coexisting Catholic, Jewish, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant and Muslim communities. The Komisja Edukacji Narodowej , Polish for Commission of National Education , formed in , was the world's first national Ministry of Education and an important achievement of the Polish Enlightenment.
The intellectual movement called the Age of Enlightenment began in this period as well. Its proponents opposed the absolute rule of the monarchs, and instead emphasized the equality of all individuals and the idea that governments should derive their existence from the consent of the governed. Enlightenment thinkers called philosophes French for philosophers idealized Europe's classical heritage.
They looked at Athenian democracy and the Roman republic as ideal governments. They believed reason held the key to creating an ideal society. In his works, Descartes was concerned with using reason to prove his own existence and the existence of the external world, including God. Another belief system became popular among philosophes, Deism , which taught that a single god had created but did not interfere with the world. This belief system never gained popular support and largely died out by the early 19th century.
Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory. Social contract arguments examine the appropriate relationship between government and the governed and posit that individuals unite into political societies by a process of mutual consent, agreeing to abide by common rules and accept corresponding duties to protect themselves and one another from violence and other kinds of harm.
In John Locke wrote that people have certain natural rights like life, liberty and property and that governments were created in order to protect these rights. If they did not, according to Locke, the people had a right to overthrow their government. The French philosopher Voltaire criticized the monarchy and the Church for what he saw as hypocrisy and for their persecution of people of other faiths.
Another Frenchman, Montesquieu , advocated division of government into executive, legislative and judicial branches. The French author Rousseau stated in his works that society corrupted individuals. Many monarchs were affected by these ideas, and they became known to history as the enlightened despots.
However, most only supported Enlightenment ideas that strengthened their own power. The Scottish Enlightenment was a period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. Scotland reaped the benefits of establishing Europe's first public education system and a growth in trade which followed the Act of Union with England of and expansion of the British Empire. Adam Smith developed and published The Wealth of Nations , the first work in modern economics.
He believed competition and private enterprise could increase the common good. The celebrated bard Robert Burns is still widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland. European cities like Paris , London , and Vienna grew into large metropolises in early modern times. France became the cultural center of the West. The middle class grew even more influential and wealthy.
Great artists of this period included El Greco , Rembrandt , and Caravaggio. By this time, many around the world wondered how the West had become so advanced, for example, the Orthodox Christian Russians , who came to power after conquering the Mongols that had conquered Kiev in the Middle Ages. They began westernizing under Czar Peter the Great , although Russia remained uniquely part of its own civilization. The late 18th century and early 19th century, much of the West experienced a series of revolutions that would change the course of history, resulting in new ideologies and changes in society.
The first of these revolutions began in North America. Britain's 13 American colonies had by this time developed their own sophisticated economy and culture, largely based on Britain's. The majority of the population was of British descent, while significant minorities included people of Irish , Dutch and German descent, as well as some Amerindians and many black slaves.
Most of the population was Anglican , others were Congregationalist or Puritan , while minorities included other Protestant churches like the Society of Friends and the Lutherans, as well as some Roman Catholics and Jews. The colonies had their own great cities and universities and continually welcomed new immigrants, mostly from Britain.
After the expensive Seven Years' War , Britain needed to raise revenue, and felt the colonists should bare the brunt of the new taxation it felt was necessary. The colonists greatly resented these taxes and protested the fact they could be taxed by Britain but had no representation in the government. After Britain's King George III refused to seriously consider colonial grievances raised at the first Continental Congress , some colonists took up arms. Leaders of a new pro-independence movement were influenced by Enlightenment ideals and hoped to bring an ideal nation into existence.
On 4 July , the colonies declared independence with the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence.
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Drafted primarily by Thomas Jefferson , the document's preamble eloquently outlines the principles of governance that would come to increasingly dominate Western thinking over the ensuing century and a half:. George Washington led the new Continental Army against the British forces, who had many successes early in this American Revolution.
After years of fighting, the colonists formed an alliance with France and defeated the British at Yorktown , Virginia in The treaty ending the war granted independence to the colonies, which became The United States of America. The other major Western revolution at the turn of the 19th century was the French Revolution. In France faced an economical crisis. The King called, for the first time in more than two centuries, the Estates General , an assembly of representatives of each estate of the kingdom: the First Estate the clergy , the Second Estate the nobility , and the Third Estate middle class and peasants ; in order to deal with the crisis.
As the French society was gained by the same Enlightenment ideals that led to the American revolution, in which many Frenchmen, such as Lafayette, took part; representatives of the Third Estate, joined by some representatives of the lower clergy, created the National Assembly , which, unlike the Estates General, provided the common people of France with a voice proportionate to their numbers. The people of Paris feared the King would try to stop the work of the National Assembly and Paris was soon consumed with riots, anarchy, and widespread looting.
The mobs soon had the support of the French Guard, including arms and trained soldiers, because the royal leadership essentially abandoned the city. On the fourteenth of July a mob stormed the Bastille , a prison fortress, which led the King to accept the changes. On 4 August the National Constituent Assembly abolished feudalism sweeping away both the seigneurial rights of the Second Estate and the tithes gathered by the First Estate. It was the first time in Europe, where feudalism was the norm for centuries, that such a thing happened. In the course of a few hours, nobles, clergy, towns, provinces, companies, and cities lost their special privileges.
At first, the revolution seemed to be turning France into a constitutional monarchy , but the other continental Europe powers feared a spread of the revolutionary ideals and eventually went to war with France. The Imperial and Prussian armies threatened retaliation on the French population should it resist their advance or the reinstatement of the monarchy. As a consequence, King Louis was seen as conspiring with the enemies of France. His execution on 21 January led to more wars with other European countries.
During this period France effectively became a dictatorship after the parliamentary coup of the radical leaders, the Jacobin. Their leader, Robespierre oversaw the Reign of Terror , in which thousands of people deemed disloyal to the republic were executed. Finally, in , Robespierre himself was arrested and executed, and more moderate deputies took power. This led to a new government, the French Directory. In , a coup overthrew the Directory and General Napoleon Bonaparte seized power as dictator and even an emperor in It remains another iconic motto of the aspirations of Western governance in the modern world.
Some influential intellectuals came to reject the excesses of the revolutionary movement. Political theorist Edmund Burke had supported the American Revolution, but turned against the French Revolution and developed a political theory which opposed governing based on abstract ideas, and preferred 'organic' reform. He is remembered as a father of modern Anglo- conservatism. In response to such critiques, the American revolutionary Thomas Paine published his book The Rights of Man in as a defence of the ideals of the French Revolution. The spirit of the age also produced early works of feminist philosophy — notably Mary Wollstonecraft 's book: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts involving Napoleon's French Empire and changing sets of European allies by opposing coalitions that ran from to As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of , they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to the application of modern mass conscription. French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe, but collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France.
The wars resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and sowed the seeds of nascent nationalism in Germany and Italy that would lead to the two nations' consolidation later in the century. Meanwhile, the Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain's hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America.
As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century,  thus beginning Pax Britannica. France had to fight on multiple battlefronts against the other European powers. A nationwide conscription was voted to reinforce the old royal army made of noble officers and professional soldiers. With this new kind of army, Napoleon was able to beat the European allies and dominate Europe. The revolutionary ideals, based no more on feudalism but on the concept of a sovereign nation, spread all over Europe.
When Napoleon eventually lost and the monarchy reinstated in France these ideals survived and led to the revolutionary waves of the 19th century that bring democracy in many European countries. With the success of the American Revolution, the Spanish Empire also began to crumble as their American colonies sought independence as well. As this process led to open conflicts between independentists and loyalists , the Spanish American Independence Wars immediately ensued; resulting, by the s, in the definitive loss for the Spanish Empire of all its American territories, with the exception of Cuba and Puerto Rico.
The years following Britain's victory in the Napoleonic Wars were a period of expansion for the United Kingdom and its former American colonies, which now made up the United States. This period of expansion would help establish Anglicanism as the dominant religion, English as the dominant language, and English and Anglo-American culture as the dominant culture of two continents and many other lands outside the British Isles.
Possibly the greatest change in the English-speaking world and the West as a whole following the Napoleonic Wars was the Industrial Revolution. The revolution began in Britain, where Thomas Newcomen developed a steam engine in to pump seeping water out of mines. This engine at first was powered by water, but later other fuels like coal and wood were used. Steam power had first been developed by the Ancient Greeks, [ citation needed ] but it was the British that first learned to use steam power effectively.
In , the first steam powered railroad locomotive was developed in Britain, which allowed goods and people to be transported at faster speeds than ever before in history. Soon, large numbers of goods were being produced in factories. This resulted in great societal changes, and many people settled in the cities where the factories were located.
Factory work could often be brutal. With no safety regulations, people became sick from contaminants in the air in textile mills for, example. Many workers were also horribly maimed by dangerous factory machinery. Since workers relied only on their small wages for sustenance, entire families were forced to work, including children.
These and other problems caused by industrialism resulted in some reforms by the midth century. The economic model of the West also began to change, with mercantilism being replaced by capitalism , in which companies, and later, large corporations , were run by individual investor s. New ideological movements began as a result of the Industrial Revolution, including the Luddite movement, which opposed machinery, feeling it did not benefit the common good , and the socialists , whose beliefs usually included the elimination of private property and the sharing of industrial wealth.
Unions were founded among industrial workers to help secure better wages and rights. Another result of the revolution was a change in societal hierarchy, especially in Europe, where nobility still occupied a high level on the social ladder. Capitalists emerged as a new powerful group, with educated professionals like doctors and lawyers under them, and the various industrial workers at the bottom. These changes were often slow however, with Western society as a whole remaining primarily agricultural for decades.
The Industrial Revolution had begun in Britain and during the 19th century it became the most powerful Western nation. Britain also enjoyed relative peace and stability from until , this period is often called the Pax Britannica , from the Latin "British Peace".
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This period also saw the evolution of British constitutional monarchy , with the monarch being more a figurehead and symbol of national identity than actual head of state, with that role being taken over by the Prime Minister , the leader of the ruling party in Parliament. Two dominant parties emerging in Parliament in this time were the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party.
The Liberal constituency was made up of mostly of businessmen, as many Liberals supported the idea of a free market.
Conservatives were supported by the aristocracy and farmers. Control of Parliament switched between the parties over the 19th century, but overall the century was a period of reform. In more representation was granted to new industrial cities, and laws barring Catholics from serving in Parliament were repealed, although discrimination against Catholics, especially Irish Catholics, continued. Other reforms granted near universal manhood suffrage , and state-supported elementary education for all Britons. More rights were granted to workers as well.
Ireland had been ruled from London since the Middle Ages. After the Protestant Reformation the British Establishment began a campaign of discrimination against Roman Catholic and Presbyterian Irish, who lacked many rights under the Penal Laws , and the majority the agricultural land was owned the Protestant Ascendancy. Throughout the 19th century, Britain's power grew enormously and the sun quite literally "never set" on the British Empire, for it had outposts on every occupied continent.
All of India was under British rule by Many Britons settled in India, establishing a ruling class. They then expanded into neighbouring Burma. In the Far East, Britain went to war with the ruling Qing Dynasty of China when it tried to stop Britain from selling the dangerous drug opium to the Chinese people.
The First Opium War — , ended in a British victory, and China was forced to remove barriers to British trade and cede several ports and the island of Hong Kong to Britain. Soon, other powers sought these same privileges with China and China was forced to agree, ending Chinese isolation from the rest of the world. In an American expedition opened up Japan to trade with first the U. In Britain outlawed slavery throughout its empire after a successful campaign by abolitionists , and Britain had a great deal of success attempting to get other powers to outlaw the practice as well.
As British settlement of southern Africa continued, the descendants of the Dutch in southern Africa, called the Boers or Afrikaners , whom Britain had ruled since the Anglo-Dutch Wars , migrated northward, disliking British rule. Explorers and missionaries like David Livingstone became national heroes. Joined by mostly British colonists, they helped establish early colonies like Ontario and New Brunswick. British settlement in North America increased, and soon there were several colonies both north and west of the early ones in the northeast of the continent, these new ones included British Columbia and Prince Edward Island.
Rebellions broke out against British rule in , but Britain appeased the rebels' supporters in by confederating the colonies into Canada , with its own prime minister. Although Canada was still firmly within the British Empire, its people now enjoyed a great degree of self-rule. Canada was unique in the British Empire in that it had a French-speaking province, Quebec , which Britain had gained rule over in the Seven Years' War. These convicts were often petty 'criminals', and represented the population spill-over of Britain's Industrial Revolution , as a result of the rapid urbanisation and dire crowding of British cities.
Other convicts were political dissidents, particularly from Ireland. The establishment of a wool industry and the enlightened governorship of Lachlan Macquarie were instrumental in transforming New South Wales from a notorious prison outpost into a budding civil society. Further colonies were established around the perimeter of the continent and European explorers ventured deep inland.
A free colony was established at South Australia in with a vision for a province of the British Empire with political and religious freedoms. The colony became a cradle of democratic reform. The Australian gold rushes increased prosperity and cultural diversity and autonomous democratic parliaments began to be established from the s onward. The native inhabitants of Australia, called the Aborigines , lived as hunter gatherers before European arrival.
The population, never large, was largely dispossessed without treaty agreements nor compensations through the 19th century by the expansion of European agriculture, and, as had occurred when Europeans arrived in North and South America, faced superior European weaponry and suffered greatly from exposure to old world diseases such as smallpox , to which they had no biological immunity. From the early 19th century, New Zealand was being visited by explorers, sailors, missionaries, traders and adventurers and was administered by Britain from the nearby colony at New South Wales.
By , New Zealand had a population made up mostly of Britons and their descendants. Following independence from Britain, the United States began expanding westward, and soon a number of new states had joined the union. Soon, America's growing population was settling the Louisiana Territory, which geographically doubled the size of the country. At the same time, a series of revolutions and independence movements in Spain and Portugal's American empires resulted in the liberation of nearly all of Latin America , as the region composed of South America, most of the Caribbean, and North America from Mexico south became known.
At first Spain and its allies seemed ready to try to reconquer the colonies, but the U. From on, the U. Each time I was set to go home after completing an assignment in the United States, I would be asked by many why I don't make America my home. For a Jordanian of Palestinian extraction, that question might seem logical. My answer, however, would always be the same: Americans have their values, we have ours. I am writing this book because George W. Bush and the authors of the New World Order want to impose their values on me and mine, and on the world.
I know Western values too well. I experienced them for about 50 years, almost a quarter of the life of the American Republic. I know that there is no conflict between true Islamic and true Christian values, as both are based on justice and fairness. Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Contents: Product description Zalloum, Abdulhay Y.
Get to Know Us. Product description English Choose a language for shopping. Zalloum, Abdulhay Y. Zalloum: ets-sec. Related Video Shorts 0.