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Asante, A. Agyeman, M. Adebayo, H. S Backiyarani, S Uma, M. Saraswathi, A Chandrasekar. Commiphora wightii Arnott. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction Sustainable horticulture movement is growing the past few decades and gaining increasing attention among the scientific and farming community. Agriculture Biodiversity Crop production Plant breeding Sustainable horticulture. Editors and affiliations. The truth is that it is extremely doubtful whether any intelligent person whose moral intuitions have not been completely destroyed and whose mental perceptions have not been largely blunted by indulgence in wickedness, can successfully persuade himself, at least permanently, that sin is a myth, an illusion of the mind, a creature of the imagination, and not a grim reality.
Most men know that sin is in themselves a fact of consciousness they cannot deny, and in others a fact of observation they cannot overlook. As Chesterton expresses it, the fact of sin any one may see in the street: the Bible assumes that any man will discover it who looks into his own heart. Hence, sin is usually described in the Sacred Volume by terms that indicate with perfect clearness its relation to the Divine will or law, and leaves no uncertainty as to its essential character. It has affected extensively the whole, race of man in every age from the beginning of the world downward, in every land beneath the sun, in every race into which man ki nd has been divided, in every situation in which the individual has found himself placed; and intensively in every individual in 10 every department and faculty of his nature, from the circumference to the center, or from the center to the circumference of his being.
How true this is may be learned from the fact that Scripture mentions only one person in whom there was no sin, viz. But besides Him not a single person figures on the page of Holy Writ of whom it is said or indeed could have been said that he was sinless. Neither Enoch nor Noah in the ante-diluvian age; neither Abraham nor Isaac in patriarchal times; neither Moses nor Aaron in the years of the Israelitish wanderings; neither David nor Jonathan in the days of the undivided monarchy; neither Peter nor John, neither Barnabas nor Paul, in the Apostolic age, could have claimed such a distinction, and these were some of the best men that have ever appeared on this planet.
Nor is it merely extensively that the reign of sin over the human family is universal, but intensively as well. It has darkened his understanding and made him unable, 11 without supernatural illumination, to apprehend and appreciate spiritual things. It paralyzes the will, if not wholly, at least partially, in every case, so that even regenerated souls have often to complain like Paul that when they would do good evil is present with them, that they are carnal sold under sin, that what they would they do not, and what they hate they do, that in their flesh, i.
In short there is not a faculty of the soul that is not injured by it. THE ORIGIN OF SIN How a pure being, possessed of those intellectual capacities and moral intuitions which were needful to make him justly responsible to Divine law, could and did lapse from his primitive innocence and fall into sin is one of 12 those dark problems which philosophers and theologians have vainly endeavored to solve. The obvious deduction is that the sin of these fallen spirits was a free act on their part, dictated by dissatisfaction with the place which had been assigned to them in the hierarchy of heaven and by ambition to secure for themselves a loftier station than that in which they had been placed.
Yet this does not answer the question how such dissatisfaction and ambition could arise in beings that must be presumed to have been created sinless. And inasmuch as external influence in the shape of temptation from without, by intelligences other than themselves, is by the supposition excluded, it does not appear that other answer is possible than that in the creation of a finite personality endowed with freedom of will, there is necessarily involved the possibility of making a wrong, in the sense of a sinful, choice.
Upon 13 himself it wrought immediate disturbance of his whole nature as already explained , implanting in it the seeds of degeneration, bodily, mental, moral and spiritual, filling him with fear of his Maker, laying upon his conscience a burden of guilt, darkening his perceptions of right and wrong, as was seen in his unmanly attempt to excuse himself by blaming his wife, and interrupting the hitherto peaceful relations which had subsisted between himself and the Author of his being.
Upon his descendants it opened the floodgates of corruption by which their natures even from birth fell beneath the power of evil, as was soon witnessed in the dark tragedy of fratricide with which the tale of human history began, and in the rapid spread of violence through the pre-diluvian world. That this doctrine, though frequently opposed, has a basis in science and philosophy, as well as in Scripture, is becoming every day more apparent. Hence there must be a Divine judgment of the race as a race, as well as of the individual as an individual.
If these passages do not show that the Bible teaches the doctrine of original, or transmitted and inherited, sin, it is difficult to see in what clearer or more emphatic language the doctrine could have been taught. The truth of the doctrine may be challenged by those who repudiate the authority of Scripture; that it is a doctrine of Scripture can hardly be denied.
On these three modem substitutes for the doctrine of future punishment see next section. Meanwhile it suffices to observe that the words just quoted seem to teach that the penalty of sin continues beyond the grave. Granting that the words of Christ about the worm that never dies and the fire that shall not be quenched are figurative, they unquestionably signify that the figures stand for some terrible calamity, — on the one hand, loss of happiness, separation from the source of life, exclusion from blessedness, and, on the other, access of misery, suffering, wretchedness, woe, which will be realized by the wicked as the due reward of their impenitent and disobedient lives, and which no revolving years will relieve.
The ultimate removal of sin from the souls of the believing and pardoned is left by Scripture in no uncertainty. Its complete and permanent removal from the race is considered by Certain interpreters to be taught in Scripture. That texts can be cited which seem to lend support to the theories of Annihilation, Second Probation, and Universal Salvation need not be denied; but a close examination of the passages in question will show that the support derived from them is exceedingly precarious.
That those who depart this life in impenitence and unbelief will be annihilated either at death or after the resurrection is deemed a legitimate deduction from the use of the word death as the punishment of sin. Solely on the assumption that mind is merely a function of matter can the dissolution of the body be regarded as the extinction of being. Such an assumption is foreign to Scripture. But now, conceding that the souls of the impenitent are not annihilated at or after death, may it not be that another opportunity of accepting the Gospel will be afforded them, and that in this way sin may be removed even from them.
But scholars are not agreed; and well informed students of the Bible are aware that both statements can be explained in such a way as to render them useless as a basis for the doctrine of a second probation. In judging concerning this, therefore, dependence must be placed on texts which admit of no dubiety as to their meaning.
Nor is it merely that the doctrine of a second probation is devoid of support from Scripture, but, contrary to all experience, it takes for granted that every unsaved soul would accept the second offer of salvation, which is more than any one can certainly affirm; and, if all did not, sin would still remain. It may be argued that all would accept because of the fuller light they would then have as to the paramount importance of salvation, or because of the stronger influences that will then be brought to bear upon them; but on this hypothesis a reflection would almost seem to be cast on God for not having done all He might have done to save men while they lived, a reflection good men will be slow to make.
The third theory for banishing sin from the human family if not from the universe is that of Universalism, by which is signified that through reformatory discipline hereafter the souls of all will be brought into subjection to Jesus Christ. But these statements do not necessarily demand the inference that all will surrender in willing subjection to Christ. Subject to Him must every power and authority be, human and angelic, hostile and friendly, believing and unbelieving.
This does not look like universal salvation and the complete extinction of moral evil or sin in the universe. His view of sin shaped his views as to the person of Christ, atonement, and salvation. One cannot hold a Scriptural view of God and the plan of salvation without having a Scriptural idea of sin. One cannot proclaim a true theory of society unless he sees the heinousness of sin and its relation to all social ills and disorders.
In the Epistle to the Romans, where he elaborates his doctrine of sin, he uses ten general terms for sin: 1. Ttapdpaan; parabasis , five times, transgression, literally walking along by the line but not exactly according to it. TiapaKori parakoee , twice, disobedience. Ttkdvrj planee , four times, wandering, error.
Twenty-one equals three times seven and seems to express the idea of completeness in sin reached by the Gentiles. It is literally true that Paul uses scores of terms denoting and describing various personal sins, sensual, social, ethical, and religious. Is this not an unmistakable lexical evidence that the Apostle to the Gentiles believed in sin as a fact in human history? These chapters constitute the most graphic and comprehensive description of sin found in Biblical, Greek, Roman, or any, literature. It is so true to the facts in heathen life today that modem heathen often accuse Christian missionaries of writing it after they have had personal knowledge of their life and conduct.
In 1 Corinthians, gross sins are dealt with — envy, strife, divisions, incest, litigation, adultery, fornication, drunkenness, covetousness, idolatry, etc. In 2 Corinthians, some of the same sins are condemned. In Colossians, he does the 23 same. In the pastoral epistles, he rebukes certain sins with no uncertain voice. Righteousness, or right relation with God, was his religious goal. As a Pharisee he felt that he could and must, in himself, achieve righteousness by keeping the whole written and oral law. This ki nd of supposable righteousness he afterwards describes and repudiates.
Howbeit, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. His experience as a Pharisee in trying to work out a righteousness of his own showed him to be a moral and religious failure. For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin. Wretched man that I am! He thought the law could help him to be righteous. All the righteousness he could achieve was insufficient.
Whence and how did sin originally enter the moral universe? Paul does not undertake to solve this problem. Only the relative and temporal origin of sin, its entrance into the human race on earth, not its absolute and ultimate source, engages the thought of Paul. But what is his testimony as to how and when sin entered the human race? Let us consider it. Paul testifies that sin entered our race in and through the disobedience of Adam.
In this parallelism between Adam and Christ, Paul is seeking to show, by contrast, the excellence of grace and the transcendent blessedness of the justified man in Christ. He is not primarily discussing the origin of human sin. But that does not depreciate his testimony. The fact that it is an incidental and not a studied testimony makes it all the more trustworthy and convincing. Nor is Paul here simply voicing the thought of his uninspired fellow- countrymen as to the entrance of sin into our race.
More than this cannot he said. The reader is referred to Wisd. Baruch ; ,19, as expressions of the Jewish view of the entrance of sin into the world and the relation of Adam to the race in the transmission of guilt. One of these passages, Ecclus. Observe that Paul goes beyond the statement of any uninspired Jewish writers: 1. In asserting that Adam and not Eve is the one through whom sin entered into the race.
The apostle here means, doubtless, that all He can scarcely mean that each individual was actually in person in Adam. If Adam had not sinned and thus depraved and corrupted the fountain head of the race, the race itself would not have been the heir of sin and the reaper of its fruits, sorrow, pain, and death.
That in the introduction of sin into the race by its progenitor the race itself was rendered helpless to extricate itself from sin and death. This the apostle asserts over and over again and has already demonstrated before he reaches the parallelism between Adam and Christ.
Christian Scientists go still farther and regard all pain and evil as merely imaginary creations of abnormal minds. Does either of these views find endorsement in Paul? It must be noted that Paul nowhere gives a formal definition of sin. But by studying the terms mostly on his pen we can determine his idea of sin.
He uses mostly the noun apaprice hamartia , 58 times, from the verb apaprccvco hamartano , to miss the mark, to sin. To miss what mark? So the mark missed is the Divine law. On the other hand, sin is not merely a negation. It is a positive quality. But Paul was convinced from his own experience and his observation of society, illumined and led as he was by the Divine Spirit, that the sin principle in men was not an upward but a downward tendency, and that in spite of all the philosophies, and all culture and ethics, to train men in the upward way, intellectually, aesthetically, socially, and morally, still they were carried on down deeper and deeper in vice as they forgot God and followed out the trend of their own thoughts and desires.
This manifestation of the Divine displeasure at sin is not spasmodic or arbitrary. It is the natural expression of a character that loves right and goodness. Because he does approve and love right and goodness, He must disapprove and hate unrighteousness and evil. How heinous and enormous sin must be, if the loving and gracious God, in whom Paul believes, thus hates and punishes it! Its nature must be the opposite of those highest attributes of God, holiness, righteousness, love. Greek English Lexicon to New Testament. The Gentile sins without the law, that is, without knowing the requirements of the written law, and so he perishes without the law, that is, without the severity specially provided for the transgressor in the written law.
But the Jew, who sins against the superior light of written revelation, shall receive the more severe penalty prescribed in the written law. Paul uses the term sin to express three phases of sin: First, the sin principle, or sin in the abstract. He uses the term more often in this sense than in any other. He often personifies the sin principle, doubtless because he believes in the personal Satan. Secondly, by implication he teaches that man is in a state of sin. Thirdly, Paul uses several terms for sin which signify acts of sin.
Here he views it in the concrete. Men forget God, hate God, lie, steal, kill, 29 commit adultery, hate parents, love self, etc. In this sense he sees the stream of human conduct which is only the expression of the sin principle. Is the law sinful in that it causes men to sin? Not at all, asserts Paul. Is the law sin?
God forbid. The following points seem clearly expressed in this passage: 1. This Paul illustrates with the tenth commandment. He would not have coveted if the law had not said, Thou shalt not covet. The sin principle makes the command of God its headquarters for a life-long campaign of struggle in man, urging him to evil actions and deterring him from good ones. There is something in man which revolts from doing the thing demanded and inclines him to do the thing forbidden.
The law shows the sinfulness of sin — shows it to be heinous in its nature and deadly in its consequences. The law sows men that they are failures in the matter of achieving righteousness. Who shall deliver me out of the body of this death? The apostle was driven to despair as he plunged headlong into persecution and its enormous sins, but when he reached the end of his own strength he looked up and accepted deliverance from the risen Christ. He regards the flesh occurring 84 times as the seat of the sin principle.
He does not mean to deny that sin as a guilty act rests on the human will. He always takes for granted human freedom to choose. Yet he regards the lower nature of man his sarx as the element of weakness and corruption in man, which furnishes a field for the operation of the sin principle. But we must hasten to say that Paul does not adopt the Platonic view that matter is evil per se.
He merely emphasizes the serfdom of man under the sway of the sin principle on account of the weakness of human flesh. Nor does Paul claim that human 31 reason is free from sin because it approves the law of God. Paul thinks of death, with its train of antecedents, sorrow, pain and all kinds of suffering, as the consequence of sin. This means physical as well as spiritual death, and the latter separation of man from fellowship with God is of prime import to Paul. We need not bring Paul into conflict With the claims of modem natural scientists, that man would have suffered physical death had Adam never sinned.
The only man that scientists know is the mortal man descended from Adam who sinned. Therefore they cannot logically assert that man would have died had Adam not sinned. He here merely asserted the great fact that all cosmic life, plant, animal, and human, has been made to suffer because of the presence of sin in man. Who can doubt it? But he is not satisfied with a mere experiential demonstration of the universality of sin. Brethren, I count not myself yet to have laid hold Sin pursued the great and consecrated apostle even down to gray hairs.
But this Napoleon in the realm of our religious experience, like the Napoleon in the experience of European kings and nations, shall meet his Waterloo. The conquest of sin by grace in Christ Jesus far transcends the demolishing power of sin handed down by Adam to his posterity. The first historic conquest of sin in Christ was His conception without sin; though bom of a sinful woman, her sinful nature was not handed down to Him. Then this conquest of sin is personalized in each believer. At regeneration the sin principle is subdued by the Spirit in Christ and the Divine nature so implanted, as to guarantee the complete conquest of sin.
Man is a sinner because, like a clock that does not tell the time, he fails to fulfill the purpose of his being. Some there are, indeed, we are told, who have no such aspirations. There are seeming exceptions, no doubt — Mr. And these aspirations and longings — these cravings of our higher being — are quite distinct from the groan of the lower creation. How, then, can we account for them? The atheistical evolution which has superseded Darwinism can tell us nothing here. But all this, which is so clear to every free and fearless thinker, gives rise to a difficulty of the first magnitude.
If man be a failure, how can he be a creature of a God who is infinite in wisdom and goodness and power? He is like a bird with a broken wing, and God does not make birds with broken wings. If a bird cannot fly, the merest baby concludes that something must have happened to it.
And by an equally simple process of reasoning we conclude that some evil has happened to our race. And here the Eden Fall affords an adequate explanation of the strange anomalies of our being, and no other explanation of them is forthcoming. Even if Scripture were silent here, the patent facts would lead us to infer that some disaster such as that which Genesis records must have befallen the human race. The dogma of the moral depravity of man, and irremediable, cannot be reconciled with divine justice in punishing sin. If by the law of his fallen nature man were incapable of doing right, it would be clearly inequitable to punish him for doing wrong.
If the Fall had made him crooked-backed, to punish him for not standing upright, would be worthy of an unscrupulous and cruel tyrant. But we must distinguish between theological dogma and divine truth. That man is without excuse is the clear testimony of Holy Writ. This, moreover, is asserted emphatically of the heathen; and its truth is fully established by the fact that even heathendom has produced some clean, upright lives.
Such cases, no doubt, are few and far between; but that in no way affects the principle of the argument; for, what some have done all might do. True it is that in the antediluvian age the entire race was sunk in vice; and such was also the condition of the Canaanites in later times. But the divine judgments that fell on them are proof that their 36 condition was not solely an inevitable consequence of the Fall. For, in that case the judgments would have been a display, not of divine justice, but of ruthless vengeance.
In this respect the life of Saul the Pharisee was as perfect as that of Paul the Apostle of the Lord. His own testimony to this is unequivocal. No less so is his confession that, notwithstanding his life of blameless morality, he was a persecuting blasphemer and the chief of s in ners.
The solution of this seeming enigma is to be found in the fact so plainly declared in the Scripture, that it is not in the moral, but in the religious or the spiritual sphere, that man is hopelessly depraved and lost. The natural man does not know his God. And this brings into prominence the obvious truth that sin is to be judged from the divine, and not from the human, standpoint.
And this applies to all the many aspects in which sin may be regarded. As Dr. What anarchy is in another sphere, anomia is in this — not mere non- observance of a law, but a revolt against, and defiance of law. It is not that men by nature prefer evil to good; that betokens a condition due to vicious practices. All power of recovery is gone there is nothing in them to which appeal can be made. Even a great criminal is not insensible to such an appeal. For, although his powers of self-control may be almost paralyzed, he does not call evil good, but acknowledges it to be evil.
He is thinking of what is due to himself. In the case of one who has had a religious training, the manifestations of that enmity may be modified or restrained; but he is conscious of it none the less. Thoughtful men of the world, I repeat, do not share the doubts which some theologians entertain as to the truth of Scriptural teaching on this subject.
The Eden Fall explains it, and no other explanation can be offered. But this we need not discuss, for it is enough for the present purpose to notice the obvious fact that with unfallen beings such a sin would be impossible. As the Epistle of James declares, every sin is the outcome of an evil desire.
The overt act of disobedience, which followed as of course, was but the outward manifestation of it. And, as their ruin was accomplished, not by the corruption of their morals, but by the undermining of their faith in God, it is not, I repeat, in the moral, but in the spiritual sphere, that the ruin is complete and hopeless. If my house be in darkness owing to the electric current having been cut off, no amount of care bestowed upon my plant and fittings will restore the light. My first need is to have the current renewed.
And apart from redemption reconciliation is impossible. But before passing on to speak of the remedy something more needs to be said about the disease. For the loose thoughts so prevalent today respecting the atonement are largely due to an utterly inadequate appreciation of sin; and this again depends on ignorance of God. The element of the folly in religious heresies affords material for an interesting psychological study.
If the Gospels be not authentic, then, so far as the teaching of Christ is concerned, intelligent agnosticism will be the attitude of every one who is not a superstitious religionist. During all the age in which the echoes of those thunders mingled with the worship of His people, the prophetic spirit could discern the advent of a future day of full redemption.
And it was in the calm and sunshine of the dawning of that long promised day that He spoke of a 40 doom more terrible than that which engulfed the sinners of Sodom and Gomorrah, for all who saw His works and heard His words, and yet repented not. The thoughtful will recognise that in divine judgment the standard must be perfection.
If God accepted a lower standard than perfect righteousness He would declare Himself unrighteous; and the great problem of redemption is not how He can be just in condemning, but how He can be just in forgiving. For some there will be many stripes, for others there will be few. And this will be the scope and purpose of the judgment of the Great Day.
The transcendent question of the ultimate fate of men must be settled before the advent of that day; for the resurrection will declare it and the resurrection precedes the judgment. And that judgment will bring reward to some and loss to others. We do what we ought not, and leave undone what we ought to do. For sin may be due to ignorance or carelessness, as well as to evil passions which incite to acts that stifle conscience and outrage law. And we have seen also that every sin gives rise to two great questions which need to be distinguished, though they are in a sense inseparable.
But after verdict, sentence; and when punishment is in question, degrees of guilt are infinite. It has been said that no two of the redeemed will have the same heaven; and in that sense no two of the lost will have the same hell. This is not a concession to popular heresies on this subject.
For the figment of a hell of limited duration either traduces the character of God, or practically denies the work of Christ. Far worse indeed than this, for, ex hypothesi, the resurrection of the unjust could have no other purpose than to increase their capacity for suffering. Or, if we adopt the alternative heresy — that hell is a punitive and purgatorial discipline through which the sinner will pass to heaven — we disparage the atonement and undermine the truth of grace.
If the prisoner gains his discharge by serving out his sentence, where does grace come in? But further, unless the sinner is to be made righteous and holy before he enters hell — and in that case, why not let him enter heaven at once? But this argument is exploded by the fact that the critic would be compelled to use these very words if he were set the task of retranslating our version into Greek.
For that language has no other terminology to express the thought. And yet it is by trading on ad captandum arguments of this kind, and by the prejudices which are naturally excited by partial or exaggerated statements of truth, that these heresies win their way. Attention is thus diverted from the insuperable difficulties which beset them, and from their bearing on the truth of the atonement.
And the wonder of the revelation is not punishment but pardon. The great mystery of the Gospel is how God can be just and yet the justifier of sinful men. Redemption is only and altogether by the death of Christ. To bring in limitations here is to limit God. For not even the divine law and the penalties of disobedience will enable us to realize aright the gravity and heinousness of sin. This we can learn only at the Cross of Christ.
Our estimate of sin will be proportionate to our appreciation of the cost of our redemption. Here, and only here, can we know the true character and depths of human sin, and here alone can we know, so far as the finite mind can ever know it, the wonders of a divine love that passes, knowledge. If this Gospel is true — and how few there are who really believe it to be true! For Christ has opened the kingdom of heaven to all believers; the way to God is free, and whosoever will may come.
There is no artifice in this and grace is not a cloak to cover favoritism. This much is as clear as words can make it — and nothing more than this concerns us — that the consequences of accepting or rejecting Christ are final and eternal. But who are they who shall be held guilty of rejecting?
What of those who, though living in Christendom, have never heard the Gospel aright? And what of the heathen who have never heard at all? No one can claim to solve these problems without seeming profanely to assume the role of umpire between God and men. We know, and it is our joy to know, that the decision of all such questions rests with a God of perfect justice and infinite love. And let this be our answer to those who demand a solution of them. Unhesitating faith is our right attitude in presence of divine revelation, but where Scripture is silent let us keep silence.
The scope of this article is limited not only by exigencies of space but by the nature of the subject. Therefore it contains no special reference to the work of the Holy Spirit.
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The current objections to the orthodox doctrine of hell are made by those who allow their hearts to run away with their heads, and are founded more on sickly sentimentality than on sound scholarship. It is greatly to be regretted that they are not more frequently dealt with in the modern pulpit; but ministers are only human, and there is a strong temptation to preach what is palatable, rather than what is profitable. Physical life is union of the spirit with the body, spiritual life is the union of the spirit with God, and everlasting life is this union perfected and consummated to all eternity.
Similarly, physical death is the separation of the spirit from the body, spiritual death is the separation of the spirit from God, and eternal death is the perpetuation of this separation. Of course He was using the common Jewish metaphors for Gehenna, taken from the perpetual fires that burned in the valley of Hinnom to destroy the refuse, and the worms that fed upon the unburied corpses that were cast there; but, as we have already seen, He would never have encouraged a popular delusion.
We need no more regard them materially than we do the golden streets and pearly gates of heaven; but, if the latter are emblematic of the indescribable splendors of heaven, the former must be symbolical of the unutterable sufferings of hell. One can no more presume to dogmatize on the one than the other, but it requires no vivid stretch of the imagination to conceive an accusing conscience acting l ik e the undying worm, and insatiable desires like the unquenchable fire. Could any material torments be worse than the moral torture of an acutely sharpened conscience, in which memory becomes remorse as it dwells upon misspent time and misused talents, upon omitted duties and committed sins, upon opportunities lost both of doing and of getting good, upon privileges neglected and warning rejected?
It is bad enough here, where memory is so defective, and conscience may be so easily drugged; but what must it be hereafter, when no expedients will avail to banish recollection and drown remorse? Surely, such expressions as the undying worm and the unquenchable fire represent, not pious fictions, but plain facts; and we may be sure that the reality will exceed, not fall short of, the figures employed, as in the case of the blessedness of the redeemed.
The woes thus pronounced are more terrible than the thunders of Sinai, and the doom denounced more awful than that of Sodom; but we should never forget 50 that these terrible expressions fell from the lips of Eternal Love, and came from a heart overflowing with tender compassion for the souls of men. Is there any solid basis in His recorded words for the doctrine of eternal hope, or the shadow of a foundation for the idea that all men will be eventually saved? No one thinks of limiting its duration in the first four cases and in the last, why then do so in the other one?
Besides, if the Divine chastisements are ineffectual here in the case of any individual, when there is so much to restrain men and women from wrong-doing, how can they be expected to prove effectual in the next world, with all these restraints removed, and only the society of devils? It is certainly somewhat illogical for those who make so much of the love of God to argue that punishment will prove remedial hereafter in the case of those whom Divine Love has failed to influence here.
Surely eternal sin can only be followed by eternal retribution; for, if a man deliberately chooses to be ruled by sin, he must inevitably be ruined by it. One never hears of the doctrine of final restoration being applied to the devil and his angels, but why not? So far from this being the case, the parable of the rich man and Lazarus rings the death knell of any such hope.
Another difficulty is removed when we realize that our Lord taught that there would be different degrees in hell as in heaven. Thus, in Matt. We have so far examined, as thoroughly as possible within this limited space, all the recorded words of our Lord which bear on this important subject. It is the dark background on which its loving invitations and tender expostulations are presented, and 53 the Gospel message loses much of its force when the doctrine is left out. But, worst of all, the earnest exhortations to immediate repentance and faith lose their urgency if the ultimate result will be the same if those duties are postponed beyond the present life.
The Christian world as a whole believes in a substitutionary atonement. This has been its belief ever since it began to think. The doctrine was stated by Athanasius as clearly and fully as by any later writer. All the great historic creeds which set forth the atonement at any length set forth a substitutionary atonement, All the great historic systems of theology enshrine it as the very Ark of the Covenant, the central object of the Holy of Holies. While the Christian world in general believes in a substitutionary atonement, it is less inclined than it once was to regard any existing theory of substitution as entirely adequate.
It accepts the substitution of Christ as a fact, and it tends to esteem the theories concerning it only as glimpses of a truth larger than all of them. It observes that an early theory found the necessity of the atonement in the veracity of God, that a later one found it in the honor of God, and that a still later one found it in the government of God, and it deems all these speculations helpful, while it yearns for further light.
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The first of these grounds would be the repeated declarations of Holy Scripture, which are so clear, so precise, so numerous, and so varied that they leave no room to doubt their meaning. The other ground is the testimony of the human heart wherever it mourns its sin or rejoices in an accomplished deliverance.
The declaration of the Scriptures that Christ bore our sins on 55 the cross is necessary to satisfy the longings of the soul. So, we believe that Christ died instead of the sinner because we must, and not because we know all the reasons which led God to appoint and to accept His sacrifice. The theory is sometimes urged with so great eloquence and tenderness that one would fain find it sufficient as an interpretation at once of the Scriptures and of human want. Now, no one calls in question the profound spiritual influence of Christ where He is preached as the propitiation of God, and those who believe the doctrine of a substitutionary atonement lift up the cross as the sole appointed means of reaching and saving the lost.
One may appreciate the moon without wishing that it put out the sun and stars. They attempt to do this by advancing many arguments, only two of which need detain us here, since, these removed, the others, of lighter moment, will fall of themselves. Substitution Impossible. It is said by them that the doctrine of substitution supposes that which is impossible. Guilt can not be transferred from one person to another. Punishment and penalty can not be transferred from a guilty person to an innocent one. An innocent person may be charged with sin, but if so he will be innocent still, and not guilty.
An innocent person may suffer, but if so 56 his suffering will not be punishment or penalty. Such is the objection: the Christian world, in believing that a substitutionary atonement has been made by Christ, believes a thing which is contrary to the necessary laws of thought. The reader will observe that this objection has to do wholly with the definitions of the words guilt and punishment and penalty. It is, perhaps, worthy the serious attention of the theologian who wishes to keep his terms free from offense; but it has no force beyond the sphere of verbal criticism.
It is true that guilt, in the sense of personal blameworthiness, can not be transferred from the wrongdoer to the welldoer. It is true that punishment, in the sense of penalty inflicted for personal blameworthiness, cannot be transferred from the wrongdoer to the welldoer. This is no discovery, and it is maintained as earnestly by those who believe in a substitutionary atonement as by those who deny it.
Let us use other words, if these are not clear, but let us hold fast the truth which they were once used to express. The world is so constituted that it bears the idea of substitution engraved upon its very heart. From human brain science we learn that there are powerful structures in the brain-stem, the limbic system and hippocampus which drive but do not coerce us to actions that keep us alive and help us thrive, such as our pleasure, memory and feeling centres Ashbrook and Albright Uncontrolled by conscience, they easily lead to selfishness and even violence by those equipped to use it.
A realistic institution must recognize this reality and curb its harmful potential by understanding the following. It requires two arms: external, in the form of effective, fair disciplinary structures, personnel and where necessary punishments, and internal, in the form of the moral sense or conscience of members. The ideal situation is where individual conscience is strong, backed by a strong ethical workplace culture and by ethical leaders, and where these are supported by the minimum of effective external policing.
The worst situation is where both internal and external policing are weak, for that opens the door to the evils of academic corruption. To achieve the ideal situation it is not enough for the multi-cultural university to open its doors to people from any culture. It must enlist their commitment to participating in the project of creating a richly ethical, multi-cultural future for the academy and the world by understanding their backgrounds and needs, seeking to meet those needs and ensuring that the university they attend is not just inclusive in name but in reality. For this to happen a special responsibility rests on the shoulders of the senior university leadership.
Only they can set the right tone for a truly inclusive campus that embraces ethical values all can share. Achieving that requires of them the visible, consistent practice of three cardinal values: equality, respect and fairness. Equality means that everyone in the university is treated and valued equally as unique human beings with hopes, fears, frustrations, needs and feelings. Respect means accepting and valuing the reality that they come from diverse backgrounds, follow different faiths or none, and have different political loyalties.
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Fairness means relating even-handedly towards all, and that makes it essential that the leadership shows no trace of bias on grounds of belief, culture and political party. On this kind of basis our universities can do invaluable work to create a global future worth having. Universities, Cultural Diversity and Global Ethics 89 5. Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press. Geering, L.
Salem, Oregon: Polebridge Press. Kidder, R. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. London: SCM Press. Prozesky, M. New York: The Free Press. During the last three decades explicit debate about the role of ethics and values in higher education has gained prominence Keenan, as evidenced in the proliferation of written codes of ethics and value statements, the establishment of ethics committees to grant clearance for research activities and the appointment of legal experts to deal with misconduct litigation, which ranges from professional misconduct, cheating, plagiarism to the misuse of university resources and misappropriation of funds Heyneman, The difficulty in setting out a uniform code of ethical conduct for academics lies in dilemmas of definition: what constitutes the academic profession and who are its members Dill, In the professions of law and medicine written codes of conduct guarantee the integrity of members who are engaged in private practice and date back centuries.
In contrast, scholarship is a communitarian activity, practised in discipline-based departments, colleges or faculties broadening out to the university as the larger community American Association of University Professors [AAUP], To address this gap, national organization such as the AAUP developed five general standards for professional conduct of the academic profession in the United States. The standards are as follows: the commitment to the advancement of knowledge above all subsidiary interests; the promotion of learning in university students by appropriate pedagogy and role modelling; loyalty to the community of scholars including willingness to participate in university governance; a commitment to the roles of teacher and scholar as practised foremost within the institution; and the responsibility to balance rights and responsibilities as private citizens with rights and responsibilities as scholars committed to freedom of inquiry and speech and academic freedom in the public sphere.
In addition, individual institutions and communities of scholars can develop their own codes or statements of professional ethics. In spite of this, professional self-regulation of ethical conduct in this context remains complex although not absent Felicio, In this environment, traditional collegial patterns of decision-making and loyalty to core academic values have been blurred by corporate models of leadership, governance and management Sporn, Further, technological development has introduced changes in pedagogy, course delivery and communication in virtual academic communities Scott, This has made the university an arena of competing discourses implicit in the language and everyday practice Foucault, Discourses are value-embued and may be frequently ignored but function nevertheless Hook, Dominant discourses, which arise from and drive the business university model generally adopted worldwide, are characterised by performativity, instrumentalism, corporatism and consumerism.
Coexisting with these discourses are the more appealing discourses of care, service, servant leadership, integrity and trust, which are more likely to be overtly identified in mission statements and other codes of behavior prevalent in university branding and marketing Visagie, The Higher Education Act, No. A National Qualifications Framework RSA, linked to an outcomes-based philosophy steered curricula into an outcomes-based format. New funding mechanisms re-orientated university offerings to address national, regional and local education and training priorities MoE, Universities have also seen radical change in student and staff composition caused by the massive increase in black students, many of whom are underprepared for the demands of higher education Du Toit, and the redress of racial imbalances throughout the ranks of university employees through equity policies Hall, In sum, these developments, local and international, constitute a new crisis for the very idea of the university Barnett, and have far- reaching challenges for ethical behaviour in academe.
Decision-making based on moral principles is raised to new levels of complexity and the intensity of temptations to compromise, if not ignore, moral principles under high-stakes pressures particularly the financial, is increased Wagner, By way of illustration, institutions may lower admission standards to enroll large numbers of students with a view to obtaining tuition fees which will increase university revenue. However, even if only taken at the level of the more traditional three roles, the implications for ethical issues emerge.
As teacher, the university educator communicates values to students, although some would argue that these are subverted or at least masked by the substantive issues of the discipline or field McFarlane, In the teaching role university educators should be diligent in the lecture room and current in their subject matter Scriven, Professional development should be directed towards producing quality teaching not only career promotion. As assessors of student work, university educators should be fair, unbiased and thorough.
Similarly in the role as peer evaluator, the university educator must be unbiased and judge on merit only. These are but a few ways that ethics penetrates everyday academic life. Translated into the everyday life of the academic, research and publication assume far greater importance than teaching, contributions to service or internal university governance.
Although such dilemmas will seldom, if ever, bring an individual academic into contravention of an official code of ethics, they are nonetheless real in terms of moral decision-making. Thirdly, the service role also may also present the university educator with choices between non-profit community projects and lucrative consultancies or large scale funded projects privileged also by university administrators in pursuit of a source of third stream income.
This is of particular importance as universities receive continually new cohorts of academics who should be socialised in ethically sound and rigorous communities of practice. Kerr advocates ethical principles for academe based on care — for intellectual property, for intellectual freedom and discourse, for academic merit and performance, for human and animal subjects in research, for position and resources and for students and colleagues.
To reach this kind of consensus about core values that penetrate academic daily life far beyond the stated requirements of a clearance committee, the conditions of an ethical contract or the rigours of a plagiarism-checking device, collective self- scrutiny is necessary. In: Forest, J. International handbook of higher education. Part one. Dordrecht: Springer. Arreola, R. Chicago: April Barnett, R. In: McFarlane, B.
Teaching with integrity: The ethics of higher education practice. London: Routledge Falmer. Bourdieu, P. Poetics Today, 12 4 , Boyer, E. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Bexley, E. Dill, D. Journal of Higher Education, 53 3 , Du Toit, A. In: Featherman, D.
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Felicio, J. Foucault, M. London: Penguin. Hall, M. In Featherman, D. Heyneman, S. Theory and Psychology, 11 4 , Keenan, J. Kerr, C. Mapesela, M. Higher Education, 50, McFarlane, B. Government Gazette, Vol. Pretoria: Government Printers. Santiago, P. Paris: OCED.
The changing face of academic life: Analytical and comparative perspectives. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Scriven, M. Sporn, B. Venter, J. Koers, 71 2 , Koers, 71 1 , Visagie, J. Acta Academica, 37 1 , Wagner, J. In this milieu, university leaders are called upon to ensure that the teaching and learning agenda remains true to these aspirations and that the students they produce are true global citizens competent to understand and engage both discipline-specific issues as well as ethical, cultural, political, and social problems.
However, before they become graduates, for many potential students lies the challenge of access and admission to university. In both of the aforementioned signal global instruments, nothing is said about promoting a better gender balance in higher education. This may be because, in the developing world from the second to the third millennium, gender balance in higher education has in fact greatly improved.
With the emphasis on open and equitable access for previously disadvantaged groups facilitating their entry into higher education, the number of women entering the higher education system and university specifically has increased manifold. The researchers confirm that the participation distribution by race was reflective of the institutional demographic. Graph 2: The gender participation indicates Data collection was through an online survey questionnaire as well as face-to-face interviews. The results indicate that inter alia i particularly with regard to subject choices in secondary school, the majority of the respondents indicated that they had chosen their own subjects in secondary school Other role-models included siblings 6.
With specific reference to study at university, a majority of the respondents The respondents were specifically challenged on the opportunities available to male and female students and the results were an unequivocal There was also disagreement Notwithstanding the above opinions, when making a gender comparison about the suitability of specific fields of study, a majority of respondents were of the opinion that some areas of study were predominantly male-oriented and less suitable to women. There was a much smaller difference in law with women exceeding men by However, there was a notable difference in science, engineering and technology where the males outnumbered the females by There is no evidence of a single factor that influences career choice: rather what one sees is a multiplicity of values of both psychological and sociological character that underpin the identified variances.
Using the principles of social constructionism helps understand how and why many women choose specific careers, explains why children identify with parental norms and expressions of experience from within the communities in which they grow up, and often take onboard and internalize expressed gender stereotypes and opinions as their own. Interestingly, the study showed far more clearly that amongst the respondents canvassed, a significant majority had made their own career choices, persuaded by neither parent: however, social and community influence was a significant factor.
The impact of the mother or maternal guardian on career aspirations reiterates the findings of Bojuwoye and Mbanjwa and the much earlier studies by Mickelson and Velasco who also identified a similar result. They did not provide any reason for the difference. However, whilst women appear to indicate a stronger inclination to supporting the common good when making career choices, as early as , Astin found that in the U.
Obura and Ajowi confirm the funneling of the career aspiration disparity between men and women finding, for instance, that amongst the youth participating in their study, the main career choices for male respondents was law, medicine and engineering whilst amongst female respondents it was also medicine and law, with nursing as the third option.
This outcome is synchronous with the findings of the study by Clancy and Dollinger whose results revealed that when asked to choose photographs that described their lives, women chose photos of others whilst male participants selected more photographs of themselves, reinforcing the view that woman have a greater tendency to define themselves based on social relationships and connectedness compared with men. Very often the differentiation that culminates in career selections is initiated in the school environment where under-representation of females in particular subjects has concomitant consequences for occupational under-representation.
The sciences are a very good example of this manifestation and it explains the current limited number of women in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM in university and the workplace. However, over the years there has been an increasing interested amongst girls in school in the subjects of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, which is confirmed by the growing numbers of women i registering for STEM disciplines in, and ii graduating from universities in these disciplines.
Hill et al agree but raise the nagging concern that notwithstanding the growing numbers, there still remains a pattern amongst female school-leavers of diminishing interest from high school to graduation. They note specifically that in high school, as many women as men show an interest in pursuing science and engineering programmes at university, yet fewer women actually do so xiv and, similar to other studies, they identified that the disparity becomes greater when the biological sciences are not included Their findings are that, by graduation, the numbers of men completing the qualification outstrips women in almost every science, engineering, physics and computer science programme.
The representation of women in science and engineering drops even further in the transition to the workplace and they confirm that men continue to outnumber them especially at the upper levels of the profession. The suggested challenge is, however, not insurmountable but Hill et al make it clear that in addressing the issues, universities must avoid the traditional approach of trying to fit women in to computer science: rather what is required is to revise perceptions of computer science at an overall level.
The research also demonstrates that limited familiarity coupled with negative experiences and an incomplete understanding of the broad employment market and professional milieu as well as the available opportunities and prospects for success may also contribute to career choice decisions, especially amongst women in minority and previously disadvantaged groups. Against this background, however, the point made by Shumba and Naong must not be lost — they caution that whilst context is important, personal aptitudes are also a critical factor in the decision- making process.
From school, girls are being encouraged to study science and mathematics and enter careers that were previously part of the male- oriented stereotype. Employment opportunities for women have undergone unprecedented change as a result legislation and policy directives. Thus, there is no gainsaying that in recent years one is seeing a widening of career aspirations as well as work-related expectations from women and a clear trajectory of convergence in the occupational choices of men and women.
The Unisa study found that among other choices, the majority of the respondents — both male and female — indicated that they chose their current career paths because they are interesting and fulfilling There is still much work that needs attention during basic education and secondary school, as well as from university leadership to provide the enabling environment that addresses the constraining forces that perpetuates specific stereotypes for women, and ensures a totally desegregated labour market.
If higher education is aimed at a collective and individual good and is recognized as a core lever for social development and global citizenship, the doors of higher education must be opened wider and all those who wish to study and are capable of studying should be able to. If the commitment to the Sustainability Development Goals is to be realized, equity and access will require greater impetus focusing on race, economic standing, and gender.
In the STEM disciplines, for example, if there is indeed a veritable commitment to growing the number of women in the profession the test for leaders in education is to identify innovative solutions to encourage women to enter these career disciplines and to persist and graduate. Positive reinforcement in the classroom is crucial as it inclines towards a twofold progressive impact.
Supporting women in male-oriented disciplines and raising awareness amongst the men of the environmental prejudices, also requires universities to consider a more holistic and integrated approach to the learning paradigm, focusing on discipline-specific teaching whilst also preparing students for the workplace with the concomitant cultural and contextual biases and stereotypes. There is no denying that if science is the discipline of choice, students entering university need a sound foundation and this begins in the school. This does not mean that students cannot succeed in the university, with the appropriate didactic and pedagogical reforms in place this is achievable: however, the challenge at university level is in attracting school leavers to the STEM disciplines when the high school learning experience has already been one that was negative.
On a more positive and hopeful note, Astin found that over her 13 year longitudinal study , the degree aspirations of minority women had increased far more significantly than those of white women with a far higher proportion aspiring to careers in medicine, law and engineering as opposed to teaching and the arts.
This bodes well for the global future. However, that said and given the global policy imperative, government intervention with appropriate encouragements and incentives will probably be one of the strongest catalysts for change. Financial aid, bursaries and scholarship for women seeking to study for degree programmes in areas highlighted as male dominated will be a material inducement for women, particularly in countries like South Africa where affordability of higher education is a critical constraint for the majority of the population.
A very important signal for change is role-modelling — children making secondary school subject choices and career choices at university need to see positive reinforcement that quashes the perceptions of specific careers being for men or women and household chores being the prerogative of women. A small improvement that will yield big results is for universities to ensure that in the specifically identified disciplines, they attract more successful women as faculty, who will in turn be role-models and mentors to young students.
The task of balancing demanding career aspirations as well as a full burden of responsibilities in the home often results in role overload for many women. Astin Universities can play a crucial role in enhancing social equality - creating spaces for discourse, engagement, disagreement, and debate, enabling men and women to hear each other, and to understand that running a home is a joint responsibility.
There is no gainsaying that gender equality requires change from both men and women. Universities and the university leadership regime should be at the forefront of leading such social change imperatives, promoting activities and engagements that acknowledge the need to adjust both at the deeper personal and communal levels, as well as through ensuring curriculum transformation and gender mainstreaming in the university programmes and projects.
There is no one-size fits all solution but an open door and a level playing field will be a critical enabler for equity and access of women in higher education. American Journal of Education, Bojuwoye, O. Journal of Psychology in Africa, Clancy, S. Sex Roles. Knowledge Resources Publishing Pty Ltd. Randburg, South Africa. Ernest, P. Fromes, P. A test of compelling hypotheses. Hill, C. Hurtado, M. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, Kao, G. Moapo, M. Directorate of Institutional Research.
South Africa. Margolis, J. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mutekwe, E. South African Journal of Education, Momsen, J. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Perry, N. Journal of Extension, Sax, L. Seymour, E. Science Education, Journal of Social Science, Stuckelberger, C. Amongst the numerous responsibilities of a higher education leader today is the expectation that they lead change, and do so strategically, sustainably and ethically. Five strategic challenges in particular are at the heart of the changing realities for institutional leaders: 1 Costs and Competitiveness - several universities and colleges are facing financial challenges due to declining revenues from Government, changed market conditions and shifts in student demand.
Indeed, some countries have committed to this as a strategic intention. In there were significantly more universities and colleges around the world than there were in and Canada, for example, now has 98 public universities and over public colleges. This has led to a very complex system which has on its own created some noteworthy barriers to learner articulation and mobility. More specifically, students are seeking high quality courses and programs which are work- relevant but not solely focused on employment competencies and engaging.
Students today are much more critical of the quality of their education than many of their predecessors.
As governments reduce their per-capita expenditure on higher education following the trend they have pursued over the last twenty years , these expectations will increase. Hand held devices now surpass desk-top computers in terms of ownership and use. Growing access to broadband but still not universal has changed access to knowledge, information, services and support. What is more, Governments will assess institutional performance by their ability to sustain themselves while offering less financial support per capita: expectations will grow while resources available to meet these expectations shift from government to more varied sources of revenue.
How they respond to the inter- related impacts of these challenges determines the extent of their ability to lead and the sustainable impact their leadership may have on their institution. Change leadership — the management of significant change and the ability to focus and align their colleagues on needed change — has become the key work of leaders. Not all are well equipped for the journey — the number who do not complete their contractual first term or seek a second term is on the rise and it is becoming more difficult to recruit to such leadership positions.
They are suspicious both of the outcomes and the process and will usually question the motives for change, especially if the rationale for change is presented in terms of external factors financial, competitive factors, etc.
Change is generally resisted, always questioned and sometimes seriously challenged. While similar sentiments may be found in business and other organizations, universities and colleges appear unable to engage and accelerate change, given that there are few incentives for them to do so. Ethical behavior in the management of change is key to the success of any change initiative. When there is a sense of bias, mistrust in the evidence base for change, then there will be mistrust in the process of change. They know that their voice carries weight. These values are articulated and the plan for change is tested against them.
While some may be more impacted by change than others, the intended outcomes are aligned with the mission and values of the organization. They know what they have to do and why. In this approach there are focused outcomes agreed by stakeholders and the journey to these outcomes is negotiated with stakeholders, who feel a true sense of engagement.
Indeed, the emergent model is one in which change is a serial set of surprise activities as opposed to a set of inter-related and planned moves leading to agreed outcomes. Some changes in higher education institutions can be seen as planned and others as emergent. One key difference between these two kinds of change — planned and emergent — is the ethical bases of the change.
In planned change ethics are front and centre and are guiding the process of change. This leads to very different sense of stakeholder engagement and a very different focus for leadership. In emergent change, leadership is often focused on mediating between conflicting groups whereas in planned change the focus is more on engagement with all stakeholders on an agreed journey and destination.
One is built on trust and the other is built on mistrust. Given the commitment to collegiality and peer decision making within the higher education sector, planned and ethical change seem to fit culturally, especially if coupled with a strong use of empathy and evidence based decision making.
Emergent change is often seen in a higher education context as expediency and is generally done with poor or no consultation and a lack of genuine engagement. In many situations, managing by consensus is not possible, and so tensions and anxiety are very real. Also very real when faced with significant challenge, threat or uncertainty, is genuine and deep anxiety. Effective change leaders have three main roles. Using this work to develop a shared sense and shape of the future.
Driving performance with passion and being systematic, focused and mindful in leading change and measuring results. They work hard to develop their capacity to innovate, and to inspire others to join them in making the world a better place and their school a great place for all. They guide others in distilling meaning from a morass of information, and efficiently apply their learning in creative ways to nurture innovation and drive improved performance.
They are skilled in seeking common ground and nurturing productive collaboration across diverse parts of a system — be it an organization, a sector, a community, a network — to solve complex problems and drive large-scale change in their own school. They articulate clear and high expectations of themselves and others, create focused strategies for innovating to achieve these ends, and are disciplined about assessing progress. It is becoming more difficult to recruit and retain such leaders Selingo, Underlying all of this work is the challenge of being an effective, focused communicator — engaged in communication that conveys determination, optimism, conviction, integrity and realism.
If change is to occur without disruption and lead to improved learning outcomes for learners, greater equity and the most effective use of available resources, planned change is essential. While business leaders can simply exercise authority and demand change — something we can see in some private educational institutions and publishing organizations — universities and colleges do need to bring their people with them to ensure the sustainability of change.
What makes this work more difficult is the increasing austerity and financial challenges which higher educational leaders now have to cope with. Reduced per capita funding coupled with demand for greater student numbers, better quality, more work-ready skills, more commercially focused innovation and research — leaders are challenged simply to maintain what they have, especially in terms of people, buildings and infrastructure. It would be easy to respond in an emergent rather than planned way. Yet time and time again in the study of effective, sustainable organizational change we see the importance of engagement, building ownership of a plan and making decisions with an evidence and empathy base.
In higher education we need a high quality of leadership with the necessary skills and capabilities for this work. They are not always easy to find.
Main Text of Book
Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 20 , pages Murgatroyd, S. New York: Lulu Press. Selingo, J. His good example has such an influence that the good men strive to imitate him, and the wicked are ashamed to lead a life so contrary to his example. It is leadership that steers the course in war and in peace, that ensures that objectives are met, and hopes and aspirations realized. Yes, it is leadership that brings nations to the heights of exhilaration, sense of pride and belonging, and yet, it is a failure of leadership that brings people to the depths of despair and loss.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate ways by which ethics has become essential component of good governance in higher education management. The paper, nonetheless, seeks a theoretical undergirding of ethics in higher education management. By so doing the paper seeks to move the ideas about leadership away from the constructs established in business and management sciences, and draws in large measure from philosophy, behavioural sciences and ethics.
The resources, both financial and human, but also the ability to strategically read human psychology, and to understand timing and place are the tools in trade for a study of leadership. To that extent therefore, leadership facilitates and enables. But Leadership is about people — their anatomy, their psychology and their gifts, and their skills 1. The amazing thing is that almost everyone exercises leadership in one aspect of life or another, even at one time or another — in the home, in community or neighbourhood, and in various aspects of human endeavour.
Leadership is an abiding constant in human life. It is unimaginable that there could be any human activity that happens without leadership. We all somehow and sometimes exercise leadership. Leadership and Ethics in Higher Education It is to recognize the skills, intelligence and effort that are required of us in different environments of leadership that we get to understand how best we can help achieve what is the best.
Shisan: I need to express myself with a bit more care and nuance. Many of the studies on leadership have been about strategies that work to bring about the intended ends. Such studies are often about the social psychology of working with people, designing vision and mission, inspiring people to achieve, working together as a team or as a collective, checking and directing progress, assessing results. Leadership is more than just the personality, or character of the person who bears a title.
It is about the values or the content of leadership — in other words, what does the leader stand for? It is at that point that one has to look beyond the leader to those who follow: who are they? Why do they follow? It is important to understand the people who are led or who follow the leader. They have certain personalities that may affect or influence the tenor of leadership. They are the ones who shape the quality of leadership, otherwise there is no point in being a leader without followers. Leaders and followers together do so in order to achieve shared objectives.